LEARNING BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVISM

Muhammad Junaid Khan, Brekhna Jamil, Ahsan Sethi

Abstract


Sometimes, knowledge or information becomes difficult to understand and/or memorize. Cognitive load theory aids a learner to gain information effectively. It provides a scientific roadmap to the design of learning materials.   Through a complex set of mental processes, information is acquiring, process, retain, and comprehend information. Applying mental effort for remembering is a very crucial phenomenon. The core of memory process is apprehending and saving of information into long term memory. Because of limited capacity of working memory, delivering or acquiring of information should not be overloaded with irrelevant materials.  Based on cognitive load theory dozens of strategies can be intervened at different loci of cognitive process and every piece of information is easily remembered. Not only learners, but teachers can also get benefits from them. In this commentary, John Sweller ideology is further discussed and strategies are presented for better comprehension and memorization of difficult information.

Keywords: memorize, memory process; learning; cognitive load theory


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References


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Fraser KL, Meguerdichian MJ, Haws JT, Grant VJ, Bajaj K, Cheng A. Cognitive Load Theory for debriefing simulations: implications for faculty development. Adv Simul 2018;3(1):28.

Kyun S, Kalyuga S, Sweller J. The effect of worked examples when learning to write essays in English literature. J Exp Educ 2013;81(3):385–408.

Chong TS. Recent Advances in Cognitive Load Theory Research: Implications for Recent Advances in Cognitive Load Theory Research: Implications for Instructional Designers. Recent Adv Cogn Load Theory Res 2005;2(3):106–117.

Arslan PY. A Review of Multimedia Learning Principles: Split-Attention, Modality, and Redundancy Effects. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Derg. 2012;8(1):114–22.

Sweller J. Measuring cognitive load. Perspect Med Educ 2018;7(1):1–2.

Mousavi SY, Low R, Sweller J. Reducing cognitive load by mixing auditory and visual presentation modes. J Educ Psychol 1995;87(2):319.

Sweller J, van Merriënboer JJG, Paas F. Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design: 20 Years Later. Educ Psychol Rev 2019;31(2):261–92.

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Spear NE, Riccio DC. Memory: Phenomena and principles. Allyn & Bacon; 1994.

Miller GA. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol Rev 1956;63(2):81–97.

Glaser R. Cognition and Instruction. J Appl Dev Psychol 2000;21(1):123–7.

Chang SH. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention. Eur J Psychol 2017;13(1):129–42.

Bruning RH, Schraw GJ, Norby MM, Ronning RR. Long-Term Memory: Structures and Models. In: Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004; p.42–53.

Murre JM, Dros J. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve. PLoS One 2015;10(7):e0120644.

Atkinson R, Shiffrin R. The control processes of short-term memory (Technical report 173, April 19, 1971). Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences, Stanford University, 1971.

Schmidt HK, Rothgangel M, Grube D. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas. Front Psychol 2015;6:1292.

Darby KP, Sloutsky VM. The cost of learning: interference effects in memory development. J Exp Psychol Gen 2015;144(2):410–31.

Mack CC, Cinel C, Davies N, Harding M, Ward G. Serial position, output order, and list length effects for words presented on smartphones over very long intervals. J Mem Lang 2017;97:61–80.

Forrin ND, Macleod CM. This time it's personal: the memory benefit of hearing oneself. Memory 2018;26(4):574–9.

Manning JR, Kahana MJ. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall. Memory 2012;20(5):511–7.

Kornell N, Metcalfe J. Study efficacy and the region of proximal learning framework. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2006;32(3):609–22.

Peterson DJ, Gözenman F, Arciniega H, Berryhill ME. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations. Atten Percept Psychophys 2015;77(7):2270–83.

Peterson DJ, Berryhill ME. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory. Psychon Bull Rev 2013;20(6):1282–9.

Baddeley A, Thomson N, Buchanan M. Word length and the structure of short-term memory. J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav 1975;14(6):575–89.

Katkov M, Romani S, Tsodyks M. Word length effect in free recall of randomly assembled word lists. Front Comput Neurosci 2014;8:129.

Kreutzmann JC, Havekes R, Abel T, Meerlo P. Sleep deprivation and hippocampal vulnerability: changes in neuronal plasticity, neurogenesis and cognitive function. Neuroscience 2015;309:173–90.

Richards RG. Making it stick: Memorable strategies to enhance learning. LD On line The world’s leading website on learning disabilities and ADHD. 2008. [Internet]. [cited 2019 Dec 18] Available from: http://www.ldonline.org/article/5602

Schwartz BL, Son LK, Kornell N, Finn B. Four principles of memory improvement: A guide to improving learning efficiency. Int J Creat Probl Solving 2011;21(1):7.

Salamé P, Baddeley A. Phonological factors in STM: Similarity and the unattended speech effect. Bull Psychon Soc 1986;24(4):263–5.


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