ENERGY DRINKS CONSUMPTION PATTERN, PERCEIVED BENEFITS AND ASSOCIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS AMONGST STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF DAMMAM, SAUDI ARABIA
AbstractBackground: There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims ofphysiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks inSaudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceivedbenefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. Methods: This study was carriedout in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire aboutenergy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongstthe university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and femalestudents were analysed. Results: A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded,out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age atfirst use was significantly (p<0.05) less in female students. Inspirations for first time use werefriends (both genders) and curiosity (males mainly). Most students did not have a fixed frequencyof use. The commonest reasons for use were company of friends, to keep awake, for more energyand for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05)benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverseeffects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively.Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. Conclusion: Asignificant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reporteda number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.Keywords: Energy Drinks, Students, Saudi Arabia, Benefits, Adverse effects
Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N. Safety issues
associated with commercially available energy drinks. Pharmacy
Bigard AX. Risks of energy drinks in youths. Arch Pediatr
Warburton DM. The effects of caffeine on cognition and mood
without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology
Koelega HS. Effects of caffeine, nicotine and alcohol on
vigilance performance. In: Snel J, Lorist M (eds) Nicotine,
caffeine and social drinking. OPA, Amsterdam, 1998.
Smith AP. Behavioral effects of caffeine. In: Parliament TH, Ho
C-T, Schieberle P (eds) Caffeinated beverages: health benefits,
physiological effects, and chemistry. Oxford University, New
Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem
Smit HJ, Rogers PJ. Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive
performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine
consumers. Psychopharmacology 2000;152:167–73.
Riesenhuber A, Boehm M, Posch M, Aufricht C. Diuretic
potential of energy drinks. Amino Acids 2006;31:81–3.
Lee SJ, Hudson R, Kilpatrick K, Graham TE, Ross R. Caffeine
ingestion is associated with reductions in glucose uptake
independent of obesity and Type 2 diabetes before and after
exercise training. Diabetes Care 2005;28:566–72.
Bichler A, Swenson A, Harris MA. A combination of caffeine
and taurine has not effect on short term memory but induces
changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino
Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB. Caffeine as a risk factor for
chronic daily headache: A population-based study. Neurology
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011;23(3)
Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic
interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin
Winston AP, Hardwick E, Jaberi N. Neuropsychiatric effects of
caffeine. Adv Psych Treat 2005;11:432–9.
Sünram-Lea SI, Foster JK, Durlach P, Perez C. Investig-ation
into the significance of task difficulty and divided allocation of
resources on the glucose memory facilitation effect.
Owens DS, Benton D. The impact of raising blood glucose on
reaction times. Neuropsychobiology 1994;30:106–13.
Keul J, Huber G, Lehman M, Berg A, Jakob EF. Einfluss von
Dex-trose auf Fahrleistung, Konzentrationsfaehigkeit, Kreislauf
und Stoff-wechsel in Kraftfahrzeug-simulator. Akt Ernahr Mad
Scholey AB, Harper S, Kennedy DO. Cognitive demand and
blood glucose. Physiol Behav 2001;73:585–92.
Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Cognitive and physiological effects
of an “energy drink”: an evaluation of the whole drink and of
glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions.
Psychopharmacology 2004;176: 320–30.
Abourashed EA, Mossa JS. HPTLC determination of caffeine in
stimulant herbal products and power drinks. J Pharm Biomed
Miller KE. Energy drinks, race, and problem behaviors among
college students. J Adolesc Health 2008;43(5):490–7.
Ballistreri MC, Corradi-Webster CM. Consumption of energy
drinks among physical education students. Rev Latino-am
Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, Carpenter-Aeby T,
Barber-Heidal K. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns
among college students. Nutr J 2007;6:35.
Attila S, Çakir B. Energy-drink consumption in college students
and associated factors. Nutrition 2011;27(3):316–22.
Pennsylvania Medical Society Energy Drinks Busting Your
Health for the Buzz. http://newswise.com/articles/view/544512/
Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink
on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 2001;21(2):139–
Forbes SC, Candow DG, Little JP, Magnus C, Chilibeck PD.
Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle
performance and bench-press muscle endurance. Int J Sport Nutr
Exerc Metab 2007;17(5):433–44.
Horne JA, Reyner LA. Beneficial effects of an energy drink
given to sleepy drivers. Amino acids 2001;20(1):83–9.
Lockwood CM, Moon JR, Smith AE, Tobkin SE, Kendall KL,
Graef JL, et al. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological
response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebocontrolled efficacy and safety study. J Strength Cond Res
Iyadurai SJ, Chung SS. New-onset seizures in adults: possible
association with consumption of popular energy drinks. Epilepsy
O'Brien MC, McCoy TP, Rhodes SD, Wagoner A, Wolfson M.
Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk
drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college
students. Acad Emerg Med 2008;15(5):453–60.
Ragsdale FR, Gronli TD, Batool N, Haight N, Mehaffey,
McMahon EC, et al. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on
cardiovascular and renal function. Amino Acids
Steinke L, Lanfear DE, Dhanapal V, Kalus JS. Effect of “energy
drink” consumption on hemodynamic and electrocardiographic
parameters in healthy young adults. Ann Pharmacother
Triebel S, Sproll C, Reusch H, Godelmann R, Lachenmeier DW.
Rapid analysis of taurine in energy drinks using amino acid
analyzer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as
basis for toxicological evaluation. Amino Acids 2007;33:451–7.
Sirdah MM, El-Agouza IM, Abu Shahla AN. Possible
ameliorative effect of taurine in the treatment of iron-deficiency
anaemia in female university students of Gaza, Palestine. Eur J
Brons C, Spohr C, Storgaard H, Dyerberg J, Vaag A. Effect of
taurine treatment on insulin secretion and action, and on serum
lipid levels in overweight men with a genetic predisposition for
type II diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:1239–47.
Zhang M, Bi LF, Fang JH, Su XL, Da GL, Kuwamori T, et al.
Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or
obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino Acids 2004;26:267–71.