DISEASE PATTERN IN EARTHQUAKE AFFECTED AREAS OF PAKISTAN: DATA FROM KAGHAN VALLEY
AbstractBackground: In 2005 northern parts of Pakistan were hit by an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 on rectorscale. Fatima Memorial Hospital established a Primary Health care centre in village of Jared in Kaghanvalley. The objective of the study was to find the pattern of different diseases presetting to health centre.Methods: All cases between August 2006 and December 2008 were included from the daily outpatientrecord of the centre. Data was analyses using SPSS-17. Frequency of different diseases and groups ofdiseases in different age groups, sexes and time of the year were the main outcome variables. Results:Total number of patients was 22,122 with a mean age of 26±16 years. The number of female patientswas 12,634 (57.1%) and males were 9,488 (42.9%). The single most common condition in the studyperiod was viral upper respiratory tract infection (5,042, 23%), followed by Scabies (3,757, 17%), AcidPeptic Disease (3,157, 14.3%), Urinary Tract infection (1,197, 5.4%) and Hypertension (n=933, 4.2%).There was a high number of young patients with urinary tract infection and hypertension. Conclusion:Communicable diseases like viral respiratory tract infection and scabies were the most commoninfections. Acid peptic disease was the most common non-communicable medical problem. Except eyeconditions, all diseases were more common in summer and rainy season.Keywords: Disease pattern, 2005 earthquake, earthquake affected areas, Pakistan
Vahaboglu H, Gundes S, Karadenizli A, Mutlu B, Cetin S, Kolayli
F et al. Transient increase in diarrheal diseases after the devastating
earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey: results of an infectious disease
surveillance study. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1386–9.
Takakura R, Himeno S, Kanayama Y, Sonoda T, Sonoda T,
Kiriyama K, Furubayashi T, et al. Follow-up after the HanshinAwaji earthquake: diverse influences on pneumonia, bronchial
asthma, peptic ulcer and diabetes mellitus. N Intern Med
Guha-Sapir D, van Panhuis WG, Lagoutte. Short communication:
patterns of chronic and acute diseases after natural disasters - a
study from the International Committee of the Red Cross field
hospital in Banda Aceh after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. J
Trop Med Int Health 2007;12:1338–41.
Zhang XQ, Chen M, Yang Q, Yan SD, Huang de J. Effect of the
Wenchuan earthquake in China on hemodynamically unstable
ventricular tachyarrhythmia in hospitalized patients. Am J Cardiol
Watanabe H, Kodama M, Tanabe N, Nakamura Y, Nagai T, Sato
M et al. Impact of earthquakes on risk for pulmonary embolism. Int
J Cardiol 2008;129(1):152–4.
Vanholder R, Van Biesen W, Lameire N, Sever MS. The role of
the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Disaster Relief Task
Force in the rescue of renal disaster victims. Contrib Nephrol
Matsuoka T, Yoshioka T, Oda J, Tanaka H, Kuwagata Y,
Sugimoto H et al. The impact of a catastrophic earthquake on
morbidity rates for various illnesses. Public Health
Chou FH, Su TT, Chou P, Ou-Yang WC, Lu MK, Chien IC.
Survey of psychiatric disorders in a Taiwanese village population
six months after a major earthquake. J Formos Med Assoc
Fan SW. Clinical cases seen in tsunami hit Banda Aceh: from a
primary health care perspective. Ann Acad Med Singapore
Ostbye T, Ponnamperuma T, Fernando N, Abeygunawardena V,
Wijayasiri WA, Chen JJ. et al. The impact of the Tsunami on
hospitalizations at the tertiary care hospital in the Southern Province
of Sri Lanka. Am J Disaster Med 2008;3(3):147–55.
Peleg K, Reuveni H, Stein M. Earthquake disasters--lessons to be
learned. Isr Med Assoc J 2002;4:361–5.
Chan EY. Why are older peoples' health needs forgotten postnatural disaster relief in developing countries? A healthcare
provider survey of 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake. Am J
Disaster Med 2009;4(2):107–12.
Chan EY, Kim JJ. Characteristics and health outcomes of internally
displaced population in unofficial rural self-settled camps after the
Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake. Eur J Emerg Med.
Chan EY, Kim JJ Remote mobile health service utilization post
Kashmir-Pakistan earthquake. Eur J Emerg Med
Ladha A, Khan RS, Malik AA, Khan SF, Khan B, Khan IN. The
health seeking behaviour of elderly population in a poor-urban
community of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2009;59:89–92.
Moineddin R, Nie JX, Domb G, Leong AM. Upshur RE.
Seasonality of primary care utilization for respiratory diseases in
Ontario: a time-series analysis. BMC Health Serv Res 2008;8:160.
Khan AJ, Hussain H, Omer SB, Chaudry S, Ali S, Khan A, Yasin
Z, Imran JK. High incidence of childhood pneumonia at high
altitudes in Pakistan: a longitudinal cohort study. Bull World Health
Nizami SQ, Bhutta ZA, Hasan R. Incidence of acute respiratory
infections in children 2 months to 5 years of age in periurban
communities in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010;22(3)
Raza N, Qadir SN, Agha H. Risk factors for scabies among male
soldiers in Pakistan: case-control study. East Mediterr Health J
Ahmed J, Haider SI, Choudhri AN. Dyspepsia in a rural cohort.J
Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2004;14(2):91–3.
Yakoob J, Jafri W, Jafri N, Islam M, Abid S, Hamid S. Prevalence
of non-Helicobacter pylori duodenal ulcer in Karachi, Pakistan.
World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:3562–5.
Yakoob J, Jafri W, Abid S, Jafri N, Hamid S, Shah HA Giardiasis
in patients with dyspeptic symptoms. World J Gastroenterol
Zafar S, Haque IU, Tayyab GU, Rehman AU, Rehman AU,
Chaudhry NU. Correlation of gastroesophageal reflux disease
symptoms with body mass index. Saudi J Gastroenterol
Khurram M, Khaar HT, Hasan Z, Umar M, Javed S, Asghar T et
al. A 12 years audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic
procedures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2003;13(6):321–4.
Anis-ur-Rehman, Jahanzeb M, Siddiqui TS, Idris M. Frequency
and clinical presentation of UTI among children of Hazara
Division, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2008;20(1):63–5.
Jan H, Akbar I, Kamran H, Khan J. Frequency of renal stone
disease in patients with urinary tract infection. J Ayub Med Coll
Buchholz NP, Abbas F, Afzal M, Khan R, Rizvi I, Talati J. The
prevalence of silent kidney stones--an ultrasonographic screening
study. J Pak Med Assoc 2003;53(1):24–5.
Trönnberg L, Hawksworth D, Hansen A, Archer C, Stenström TA.
Household-based prevalence of helminths and parasitic protozoa in
rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, assessed from faecal vault
sampling. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2010;2:45–57.
Crompton DW, Savioli L. Intestinal parasitic infections and
urbanization. Bull World Health Organ 1993;71(1):1–7.
Jacobsen KH, Ribeiro PS, Quist BK, Rydbeck BV. Prevalence of
intestinal parasites in young Quichua children in the highlands of
rural Ecuador. J Health Popul Nutr 2007;25:399–405.
Syed S, Hingorjo MR, Charania A, Qureshi MA. Anthropometric
and metabolic indicators in hypertensive patients. J Coll Physicians
Surg Pak 2009;19:421–7.
Yadav S, Boddula R, Genitta G, Bhatia V, Bansal B, Kongara S.
Prevalence & risk factors of pre-hypertension & hypertension in
an affluent north Indian population. Indian J Med Res
Saleheen D, Hashmi SK, Zaidi M, Rasheed A, Murtaza M, Abbas
A et al. Evaluation of therapeutic control in a Pakistani population
with hypertension. J Eval Clin Pract 2010;16:1081–4.
Shera AS, Basit A, Fawwad A, Hakeem R, Ahmedani MY, Hydrie
MZ, Khwaja IA. Pakistan National Diabetes Survey: prevalence of
glucose intolerance and associated factors in the Punjab Province of
Pakistan. Prim Care Diabetes 2010;4(2):79–83.
Gibson T, Hameed K, Kadir M, Sultana S, Fatima Z, Syed A. Knee
pain amongst the poor and affluent in Pakistan. Br J Rheumatol
Farooqi A, Gibson T. Prevalence of the major rheumatic disorders
in the adult population of north Pakistan. Br J Rheumatol
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.