FLUORIDE RELEASE FROM GLASS IONOMER CEMENT CONTAINING FLUOROAPATITE AND HYDROXYAPATITE
AbstractBackground: Many investigators reported the amount of fluoride release from glass ionomer cement. However, the work on fluoride release from GIC containing fluoroapatite and hydroxyapatite is scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the amount of fluoride release from Glass ionomer cement containing fluoroapatite and hydroxyapatite. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Materials, Queen Marry University of London. A total of 108 samples equally divided in to three groups namely fluoroapatite added GIC, Hydroxyapatite added GIC as an experimental group and unmodified GIC as a control group. The specimens were prepared by mixing powder and liquid in the ratio of 1:1. Amount of fluoride released was measured by Ion electrode method at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Results: On day 1, the combination of FA +GIC showed the highest amount of fluoride release followed by the control group (GIC) whereas the combination of HA+GIC released the least amount of fluoride. On day 7, the amount of fluoride release started declining in all three groups. The amount of fluoride release continued decreasing on day 21 in which combination of FA +GIC and the control group are shown to release equal amount of fluoride whereas the combination of HA+GIC gave the least activity the amount of fluoride release fall to a minimum level in all three group by day 28. Conclusion: It is concluded that addition of fluoroapatite into GIC has significant effect on the amount of fluoride release as compared to GIC alone; however, addition of hydroxyapatite into GIC has no additive effect on the amount of fluoride release.Keyword: Fluoroapatite, Hydroxyapatite, Glass ionomer cement
Koch G, Hatibović-Kofman S. Glass ionomer cements as a fluoride release system in vivo. Swedish dental journal. 1990;14(6):267-73.
Wiegand A, Buchalla W, Attin T. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials—fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation. Dental materials. 2007;23(3):343-62.
Weidlich P, Miranda LA, Maltz M, Samuel S. Fluoride release and uptake from glass ionomer cements and composite resins. Braz Dent J. 2000;11(2):89-96.
Yap A, Tham S, Zhu L, Lee H. Short-term fluoride release from various aesthetic restorative materials. Operative dentistry. 2002;27(3):259-65.
Selimović-Dragaš M, Hasić-Branković L, Korać F, Đapo N, Huseinbegović A, Kobašlija S, et al. In vitro fluoride release from a different kind of conventional and resin modified glass-ionomer cements. Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences. 2013;13(3):197.
Nicholson J, Hawkins S, Smith J. The incorporation of hydroxyapatite into glass-polyalkenoate (“glass-ionomer”) cements: a preliminary study. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 1993;4(4):418-21.
Martin R, Paul S, Lüthy H, Schärer P. Dentin bond strength of Dyract Cem. American journal of dentistry. 1997;10(1):27-31.
Chiu S-Y, Shinonaga Y, Abe Y, Harada K, Arita K. Influence of porous spherical-shaped hydroxyapatite on mechanical strength and bioactive function of conventional glass ionomer cement. Materials. 2017;10(1):27.
Moshaverinia A, Ansari S, Movasaghi Z, Billington RW, Darr JA, Rehman IU. Modification of conventional glass-ionomer cements with N-vinylpyrrolidone containing polyacids, nano-hydroxy and fluoroapatite to improve mechanical properties. dental materials. 2008;24(10):1381-90.
Carey CM, Spencer M, Gove R, Eichmiller F. Fluoride release from a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement in a continuous-flow system: effect of pH. Journal of dental research. 2003;82(10):829-32.
Forsten L. Fluoride release and uptake by glass-ionomers and related materials and its clinical effect. Biomaterials. 1998;19(6):503-8.
Xie D, CULBERTSON* BM, Wang G. Microhardness of N-vinylpyrrolidone modified glass-ionomer cements. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1998;35(4):547-61.
Luo J, Billington RW, Pearson GJ. Kinetics of fluoride release from glass components of glass ionomers. Journal of dentistry. 2009;37(7):495-501.
Moreno E, Kresak M, Zahradnik R. Physicochemical aspects of fluoride-apatite systems relevant to the study of dental caries. Caries research. 1977;11(Suppl. 1):142-71.
Tay W, Braden M. Fluoride ion diffusion from polyalkenoate (glass-ionomer) cements. Biomaterials. 1988;9(5):454-6.
Wang G, Culbertson B, Xie D, Seghi R. Physical property evaluations of perfluorotriethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a potential reactive diluent in dental composite resins. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A. 1999;36(2):225-36.
El Mallakh B, Sarkar N. Fluoride release from glass-ionomer cements in de-ionized water and artificial saliva. Dental Materials. 1990;6(2):118-22.
Creanor S, Carruthers L, Saunders W, Strang R, Foye R. Fluoride Uptake and Release Characteristics of Glass lonomer Cements. Caries Research. 1994;28(5):322-8.
Lin J, Zhu J, Gu X, Wen W, Li Q, Fischer-Brandies H, et al. Effects of incorporation of nano-fluorapatite or nano-fluorohydroxyapatite on a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Acta biomaterialia. 2011;7(3):1346-53.
Arita K, Yamamoto A, Shinonaga Y, Harada K, Abe Y, Nakagawa K, et al. Hydroxyapatite particle characteristics influence the enhancement of the mechanical and chemical properties of conventional restorative glassionomer cement. Dental materials journal. 2011;30(5):672-83.