• Zahid Nazir
  • Samina Said
  • Khalid A. Mufti


Thirty Afghan refugees who had survived torture and concentration camps experience were subjected to thoroughpsychiatric search. All of them met the DSM-III R Criteria for post- traumatic Stress Disorder. Their main symptoms wereavoidance of the past recall, intrusive thoughts and nightmares that were persistent. These findings give cross-culturalvalidation of post-traumatic stress syndrome in general while with a difference that (i). Younger patients of our studygroup showed better prognosis and minimum suicidal tendencies, (ii). Duration of stay in concentration Camps wassignificantly less as compared to Western studies.


Amnesty International (1992) Amnesty International

Report 1992. London Amnesty International Publication.

Basoglu (1933), Prevention of torture and care of

survivors. An integrated approach. Journal of the

American Medical Association, 270, 606-611.

Barudy. J (1989), A program of mental health for political

refugees. Dealing with the invisible path of political exile,

social Science Medicine, 28. 715-727

Goldfele, A.E., Mollica, R.F., Pea Savento. Bit et al

(1988). The physical and psychological sequel of torture.

Journal of the American medical association, 259. 2725-

Somnier F.E, Vesti. P, Kasterup, M et al (1992). Psychosocial consequences of torture. Current knowledge and

evidence, in torture and its consequences; current

Treatment Approaches (ed. M. Basoglu). PP 56-76.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Allodi. F.A (199). Assessment and treatment of torture

victims; a critical review journal of nervous and mental

Diseases, 179.4-11.

Mollica, R.F. & Caspi - Yavin, Y (1992) overview. The

assessment and diagnosis of torture events and

symptoms, in torture and its consequences: Current

Treatment Approaches (ed. M. Basogll) PP 253-274,

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hodaff P: Psychiatric aspects of the Nazi Persecution, in

American handbook of Psychiatry, 21"1 ed, Vol. VI.

Aricti's. editor in chief New York, Basic Books, 1975.

Trautmam EC. Fear and Pain in Nazi Concentration

Camps: a biosocial evaluation of the chronic anxiety

syndrome. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry 10:1340141. 1964.

Arthur R.J. Psychiatric Syndromes in Prisoner of war and

concentration camp survivors in Extra Ordinary

Disorders of human Behavior Edited by Fiemann CT,

Faguet RA, New York Plenu. 1982.

Archibald N.E Tuddenham R.D persistent stress reaction

following combat: a twenty year follow' up. American

General of Psychiatry 12:475-481, 1965.

Buck OC, Walker .1.1. Posttraumatic stress disorder in

Vietnam veterans: A review South Med. J. 75: 704-7-6,

Wilmer HA. Post-traumatic stress disorder. PsychiatricAnnuals 12:995- 1003, 1982.

Allodi -F. Cowgill -G; Ethical and psychiatric aspects of

torture. A Canadian study. Can -J - Psychiatry, 1983.

M.AR27 (2) P.98-102.

Zilbirg Nil. Weiss D.S, Horwitz MJ: Impact of event

scale: a Cross validation study and some empirical

evidence supporting a conceptual model of stress

response syndrome. J. Consult. Clin Psychol. 50: 407 -

, 1982.

Mufti K.A. Psychiatric problems in Afghan Refugees

published in Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrist

Belgrave Square London SWIX 8 PC. Vol. 10 No.6 Issue

No. 140-0789 in June 1986.


Most read articles by the same author(s)