KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS AND BEHAVIOUR OF NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
AbstractBackground: Cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death worldwide, yet very little data is available assessing the awareness of the younger population of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and the preventive measures taken to avoid the health issues related to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: It was a community based cross sectional descriptive study to assess the awareness and behavior in young non medical students. A questionnaire was developed and survey was conducted on 300 non medical students enrolled in different universities of Pakistan. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16. Results: The sample consisted of 300 students aged between 16 and 32 years.6.7% of the participants had history of blood pressure, 0.7% had diabetes, and 68.3% had a family history of cardiovascular diseases. 17.4% students were smokers. In the knowledge section, only 22% respondent scored above 20 out of 28 showing lack of knowledge. 42.7% participants were concerned about developing coronary artery diseases. 43.3% and 6.7% knew their blood pressure and cholesterol level respectively.33.3% and 41.7% regulate their dietary fat and salt intake respectively. Conclusion: Our study elucidates that cardiovascular diseases are not perceived as major risk by Non Medical Students. Lack of knowledge, physical inactivity, and high positive family history render the target population prone to cardiovascular diseases. The findings of study indicates the need for heart disease awareness campaigns for young population, to escalate the preventive actions and adoption of healthy lifestyles so as to lower the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Pakistan.
Beaglehole R, Reddy S, Leeder SR. Poverty and human development: the global implications of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2007;116(17):1871–3.
Jafar TH, Jafary FH, Jessani H, Chaturvedi N. Heart disease epidemic in Pakistan:women and men at equal risk. Am Heart J 2005;150(2):221–6.
Crouch R. Perception, Knowledge & Awareness of Coronary Heart Disease among rural Australian women 25 to 65 years of age – a descriptive study. 2008.
Khuwaja AK, Fatmi Z, Soomoro WB, Khuwaja NK. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in school children-a pilot study. J Pak Med Assoc 2003;53(9):396–400.
Anding. 2001; Dinger & Waigandt, 1997; Grace, 1997; Hiza & Gerrior, 2002; TLHS, 2000.
Khan MS, Jafary FH, Jafar TH, Faruqui AM, Rasool SI, Hatcher J, et al. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan : a cross sectional study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2006;6:18.
Drezner JA, Fudge J, Harmon KG, Berger S, Campbell RM, Vetter VL.Warning symptoms and family history in children and young adults with sudden cardiac arrest. J Am Board Fam Med 2012;25(4):408–15.
Siddiqui FR, Ur-Rahman M, Bhatti M, Mirza I, Shahid A. Knowledge, attitudes and practices to lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes amongst South Asians in North Kirklees, England-A focus group study. Pak Armed Forces J. 2008;3:1–9.
Arikan I, Metintaş S, Kalyoncu C, Yildiz Z. The Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) Scale: a validity and reliability study. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2009;37(1):35–40.
Bergman HE, Reeve BB, Moser RP, Scholl S, Klein WM. Development of a Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire. Am J Health Educ 2011;42(2):74–87.
WHO/Europe. Definition of cardiovascular diseases [Internet].[cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/cardiovascular-diseases/cardiovascular-diseases2/definition-of-cardiovascular-diseases
World Health Organization: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): Fact sheet No. 317. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/
Aslam F, Mahmud H, Waheed A. Cardiovascular health--behaviour of medical students in Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc 2004;54(9):492–5.
Lawes CM, Vander Hoorn S, Rodgers A. Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001. Lancet 2008;371(9623):1513–3.
World Heart Federation. Cardiovascular disease risk factors - Diabetes. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors/diabetes/
American Heart Association. Coronary artery disease—Coronary heart disease. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Coronary-Artery-Disease---Coronary-Heart-Disease_UCM_436416_Article.jsp
World Heart Federation. Cardiovascular disease risk factors – Family history | World Heart Federation [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors/family-history/
Kardia SLR, Modell SM, Peyser PA. Family-centered approaches to understanding and preventing coronary heart disease. Am J Prev Med 2003;24(2):143–51.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication (CDC) 1989;89–8411.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. A Report of the Surgeon General. USDHHS, Centers for Disease Control. Office of Smoking and Health; 1990. DHHS Publication (CDC) 1990;90–8416.
Weight H. Assessing Your Weight: BMI: About Adult BMI| DNPAO| CDC. 2013. [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/
Lamon-Fava S, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ. Impact of body mass index on coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women. The Framingham Offspring Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16(12):1509–15.
Awad A, Al-Nafisi H. Public knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Kuwait: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 2014;14:1131.
Zhang QT, Hu DY, Yang JG, Zhang SY, Zhang XQ, Liu SS. Public knowledge of heart attack symptoms in Beijing residents. Chin Med J (Engl) 2007;120(18):1587–91.
Vaidya A, Aryal UR, Krettek A. Cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in an urbanising community of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study from Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site. BMJ Open 2013;3(10):e002976.
Khan MS, Jafary FH, Faruqui AM, Rasool SI, Hatcher J, Chaturvedi N, et al. High prevalence of lack of knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction in Pakistan and its contribution to delayed presentation to the hospital. BMC Public Health 2007;7:284.
Batlish R, Jadhav SL, Banerjee A. Coronary heart disease: awareness of risk factors and lifestyle among school-going adolescents. Indian J Med Sci 2007;61(8):474–6.
Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know. NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/summer12/articles/summer12pg6-7.html
Juonala M, Viikari JS, Raitakari OT. Main findings from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Curr Opin Lipidol 2013;24(1):57–64.
Aaron KJ, Sanders PW. Role of dietary salt and potassium intake in cardiovascular health and disease: a review of the evidence. Mayo Clin Proc 2013;88(9):987–95
Barnes AS. Obesity and sedentary lifestyles: risk for cardiovascular disease in women. Tex Heart Inst J 2012;39(2):224–7.
Hu FB. Globalization of food patterns and cardiovascular disease risk. Circulation 2008;118(19):1913–4.
Sheridan S, Pignone M, Donahue K. Screening for high blood pressure: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Am J Prev Med 2003;25(2):151–8.
National Cholesterol Education Programme. Second report of the expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult treatment panel II). Circulation 1994;89(3):1333–445.
Everitt AV, Hilmer SN, Brand-Miller JC, Jamieson HA, Truswell AS, Sharma AP, et al. Dietary approaches that delay age-related diseases.Clin Interv Aging 2006;1(1):11–31.
American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults [Internet]. [cited 2015 Mar 14]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/American-Heart-Association-Recommendations-for-Physical-Activity-in-Adults_UCM_307976_Article.jsp
Warren TY, Barry V, Hooker SP, Sui X, Church TS, Blair SN. Sedentary behaviors increase risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42(5):879–85.