• Bilal Ali Anjum Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad
  • Maqbool Hussain Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad
  • Muhammad Bilal Iqbal DHQ Hospital, Jhelum
  • Sehrish Zafar Federal Government Polyclinic Hospital, Islamabad
  • Nighat Haider Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, PIMS
  • Izza Nawab THQ Hospital, Saraialamgir



Acute diarrhea, Probiotics, yogurt


Background: The advantages of probiotic administration for acute diarrhoea are mainly shorter duration of symptoms as well as reduced number of stools per day while use of traditional yogurt has similar results. So, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of yogurt with probiotic in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at department of Pediatrics, Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad over 1 year. A total of nine hundred and thirty (930) children between 1–5 years of age presenting with acute diarrhoea were enrolled and equally randomized to Group-A (yogurt) and Group-B (lactobacillus rhamnosus) with ORS. The primary outcome was mean frequency of diarrhoea in first 24 hours after initiation of treatment in both the groups. Results: Gender distribution revealed that out of 930 patients, 643 (69.1%) were male and 287 (30.9%) were female while the mean age was 3.14±1.18 years. Mean duration of disease was 4.23±2.02 days. Mean no. of stools in first 24 hours after treatment in Group-A (yogurt) was 3.25±1.64 and 3.29±1.74 in Group-B (probiotics). Student t-test for independent samples was applied and no significant difference was found between the two groups (p=0.713). Conclusions: Mean frequency of diarrhoea in first 24 hours after treatment with traditional yogurt and commercially available probiotics was not statistically significant in this study.

Author Biography

Maqbool Hussain, Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad



WHO. Medi center. Diarrhoeal disease. [Internet]. April 2013. [cited 2016 July 10]. Available from:

Lazzerini M, Wanzira H. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;2016(12):CD005436.

De Castro JA, Kesavelu D, Lahiri KR, Chaijitraruch N, Chongsrisawat V, Jog PP, et al. Recommendations for the adjuvant use of the poly-antibiotic-resistant probiotic Bacillus clausii (O/C, SIN, N/R, T) in acute, chronic, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: consensus from Asian experts. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2020;6:21.

Vatanparast H, Islam N, Patil RP, Shamloo A, Keshavarz P, Smith J, et al. Consumption of Yogurt in Canada and Its Contribution to Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality among Canadians. Nutrients 2019;11(6):1203.

Moore JB, Horti A, Fielding BA. Evaluation of the nutrient content of yogurts: a comprehensive survey of yogurt products in the major UK supermarkets. BMJ Open 2018;8(8):e021387.

Applegate JA, Walker CLF, Ambikapathi R, Black RE. Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhoea in children. BMC Public Health 2013;13(Suppl 3):S3–16.

Abedi D, Feizizadeh S, Akbari V, Jafarian-Dehkordi A. In vitro anti-bacterial and antiadherence effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubspbulgaricus on Escherichia coli. Res Pharm Sci 2013;8(4):260–8.

Dalgic N, Sancar M, Bayraktar B, Pullu M, Hasim O. Probiotic, zinc and lactose-free formula in children with rotavirus diarrhoea: are they effective? Pediatr Int 2011;53(5):677–82.

Ahmadi E, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Rezai MS. Efficacy of probiotic use in acute rotavirus diarrhoea in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Caspian J Intern Med 2015;6(4):187–95.

Grandy G, Jose Z, Soria R, Castelú J, Perez A, Ribera JP, et al. Use of Probiotic Yogurt in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children. Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study. Open J Pediatr 2014;4:54–61.

Golab BP, Shamir R, Szajewska H. Yogurt for treating antibiotic-associated diarrhoea: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition 2015;31(6):796–800.

Choudhary M, Sharma D, Beniwal M, Dabi D, Pandita A. Traditional Yoghurt and Probiotic in Treatment of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Non - Inferiority Trial. J Pediatr Neonatal Care 2015;2:1–7.

Eren M, Dinleyici EC, Vandenplas Y. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhoea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010;82(3):488–91.

Fox MJ, Ahuja KD, Robertson IK, Ball MJ, Eri RD. Can probiotic yogurt prevent diarrhoea in children on antibiotics? A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. BMJ Open 2015;5(1):e006474.

Sharif A, Kheirkhah D, Esfandabadi PS, Masoud SB, Ajorpaz NM, Sharif MR. Comparison of Regular and Probiotic Yogurts in Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhoea in Children. J Prob Health 2017;5(1):1000164

Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Casper C, Gorelick MH, Dean M, O’Connell KJ. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. N Engl J Med 2018;379:2002–14.

Li YT, Xu H, Ye JZ, Wu WR, Shi D, Fang DQ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in treatment of acute pediatric diarrhoea: A systematic review with meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2019;25(33):4999–5016.

Li Y, Xia S, Jiang X, Feng C, Gong S, Ma J, et al. Gut Microbiota and Diarrhoea: An Updated Review. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021;11:625210.

Collinson S, Deans A, Padua-Zamora A, Gregorio GV, Li C, Dans LF, et al. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;12(12):CD003048.

Hobbs DA, Givens DI, Lovegrove JA. Yogurt consumption is associated with higher nutrient intake, diet quality and favourable metabolic profile in children: a cross-sectional analysis using data from years 1-4 of the National diet and Nutrition Survey, UK. Eur J Nutr 2019;58(1):409–22.