Shahsawar Khan, Ajmal Khan, Rehmat Ghaffar, Zahid Aslam Awan


Abstract: Heart failure is a prevalent debilitating disease of poor prognosis in which heart cannot
fill with or eject the sufficient amount of blood that is required due to structural or functional
cardiac disorder. Depression is 4–5 times as common in heart failure (HF) patients as in the
general population, and it might confer a higher risk of developing HF and negatively affect
prognosis in established HF. Objective: To determine the frequency of depression among patients
presenting with chronic heart failure. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was
conducted in cardiology department Hayat Abad Medical Complex Peshawar from November
2011 to April 2012. In this study a total of 121 patients were observed by using 13% proportion of
depression in heart failure, 95% confidence level and 6% margin of error, under WHO software
for sample size determination. Results: Mean age was 55±1.26 years. Sixty-eight percent patients
were male and 32% were female. Fifteen percent patients had chronic heart failure for less than 1
year, 37% had chronic heart failure for 2–3 years and 48% patients had chronic heart failure for 3–
4 years. Seventy percent patients had HADS score <11 and 30% had HADS scored of >11. Thirty
percent patients had depression in chronic heart failure while 70% did not have depression in heart
failure. Conclusion: Depression is common among CHF patients. Severe depression is more
frequent than mild depression.
Keywords: Depression, Congestive Heart failure, NYHA, HADS

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