Humera Ismail, Sarah Rafiq, Shafia Shakoor, Muhammad Tariq Karim, Rabia Raheel


Background: Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine among women are not satisfactory in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the role of education in adult women about knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in women aged 19-50 years attending the out-patient waiting area of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from August 2014 to August 2015. Convenience sampling was applied. After their written consent, a self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding role of education and awareness, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine. A total of 600 women completed the questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 39±10.7 years. About 68% (n=405) had an education level intermediate or less, while 33% (n=195) had a bachelors or higher degree. A total of 56.3% (n=338) women were aged less than 40 years. Conclusion: Awareness among women varies with the level of education acquired. As shown by results, a lesser proportion of undergraduate women were aware about HPV and its related diseases as compared women at graduate level. Moreover, our study identifies significant gaps in knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HPV, cervical cancer and its prevention. There is an urgent need to develop public awareness programs targeting the adolescent and young adult women of our country.

Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); HPV vaccine; Education; Adults; Women

Full Text:



Blödt S, Holmberg C, Müller-Nordhorn J, Rieckmann N. Human Papillomavirus awareness, knowledge and vaccine acceptance: A survey among 18-25 year old male and female vocational school students in Berlin, Germany. Eur J Public Health 2011;22(6):188–13.

Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348(6):518–27.

Baseman JG, Koutsky LA. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections. J Clin Virol 2005;32(Suppl 1):S16–24.

Koutsky L. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Am J Med 1997;102(5A):3–8.

Schiffman M, Castle PE. The promise of global cervical-cancer prevention. N Engl J Med 2005;353(20):2101–4.

Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, McQuillan G, Swan DC, Patel SS, et al. Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States. JAMA 2007;297(8):813–9.

Giuliano AR, Lee JH, Fulp W, Villa LL, Lazcano E, Papenfuss MR, et al. Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study. Lancet 2011;377(9769):932–40.

Kjaer SK, Munk C, Winther JF, Jørgensen HO, Meijer CJ, van den Brule AJ. Acquisition and persistence of human papillomavirus infection in younger men: a prospective follow-up study among Danish soldiers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14(6):1528–33.

Klug SJ, Hukelmann M, Blettner M. Knowledge about infection with human papillomavirus: a systematic review. Prev Med 2008;46(2):87–98.

Head SK, Crosby RA, Moore GR. Pap smear knowledge among young women following the introduction of the HPV vaccine. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2009;22(4):251–6.

Klug SJ, Hetzer M, Blettner M. Screening for breast and cervical cancer in a large German city: participation, motivation and knowledge of risk factors. Eur J Public Health 2005;15(1):70–7.

Peto J, Gilham C, Fletcher O, Matthews FE. The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK. Lancet 2004;364(9430):249–56.

McGraw SL, Ferrante JM. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer. World J Clin Oncol 2014;5(4):744–52.

Gul S, Javed A, Mall S. Awareness about cervical cancer, human papillomavirus and acceptability of its vaccine among female university students of Peshawar Pakistan. 2012.

Ortashi O, Raheel H, Shalal M, Osman N. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and vaccination among women in UAE. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14:6077–80.

Yacobi E, Tennant C, Ferrante J, Pal N, Roetzheim R. University students' knowledge and awareness of HPV. Prev Med 1999;28(6):535–41.

Weisskopf MC, Hester JJ, Tennant AF, Elsner RF, Schulz NS, Marshall HL, et al. Discovery of spatial and spectral structure in the X-ray emission from the Crab Nebula. Astrophys J 2000;536(2):L81–4.

Mehu-Parant F, Rouzier R, Soulat JM, Parant O. Eligibility and willingness of first-year students entering university to participate in a HPV vaccination catch-up program. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;148(2):186–90.

Wong LP, Sam IC. Ethnically diverse female university students’ knowledge and attitudes toward human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccination and cervical cancer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;148(1):90–5.

Chan PK, Luk AC, Luk TN, Lee KF, Cheung JL, Ho KM, et al. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in anogenital warts of men. J Clin Virol 2009;44(2):111–4.

Yanıkkerem E, Piyan G, Kavlak T, Karadeniz G. Assessing the role of education on Turkish university students’ knowledge about HPV and related diseases. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2010;11(6):1703–11.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] []