RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEGATIVE COGNITIVE STYLE AND DEPRESSION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

Shagufta Perveen, Syeda Farhana Kazmi, Atiq Ur Rehman

Abstract


Background: Depression is one of the major problems faced by medical students, which have significant adverse effects on their social, academic and occupational functioning. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of depression and to explore the gender differences and interrelationship between the depression and negative cognitive style among medical students of First year (FY) Last year (LY) MBBS. Methods: A Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in Ayub medical college Abbottabad; Khyber medical college Peshawar; Bannu medical college; Rawalpindi medical college; Punjab medical college Faisalabad and Allama Iqbal medical college Lahore, Pakistan. Applying stratified sampling technique a battery of questionnaires naming depression screening test, self-report depression scale and cognitive style questionnaire was filed by a sample of 1000 (first and last year) medical students. The data was analysed by SPSS 16. Results: Positive relationship exists between depression and negative cognitive style (r=.57, p<.05) among medical students. Forty one percent male and 61% female students of FY and 58% males and 69% female of LY students exhibited depressive symptoms. Females have higher scores on cognitive style questionnaire t (998) =3.92, p<.05, and depression t (998)=4.89, p<.05. The t-test analysis also revealed that FY students were holding more negative cognitive style t (998)=53.09, p<.05, whereas LY medical students to be more depressed t (998)=5.14, p< .05. Conclusions: The study revealed significant distress among medical students. Negative cognitive style positively correlates with depression among medical students. Furthermore, it is noticed that among female students the prevalence of depressive symptoms and negative cognitive style was higher. Moreover, it is concluded that the prevalence of depression in LY and negative cognitive styles among FY was higher respectively. Students should be provided proper counselling to avoid and cope with faulty thought patterns leading to depression.

Keywords: negative cognitive style, depression, gender


Full Text:

PDF

References


REFERENCES

Thapar A, Collishaw S, Pine DS, Taper AK. Depression in adolescence. Lancet 2012; 1056–1067.

World Health Organization (2008). World Health Organization. Global Burden of Disease 2004update.Geneva.

Christensson A, Vaez M, Dickman P, Runeson B. Self-reported depression in first-year nursing students in relation to socio-demographic and educational factors: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Sweden. Soc Psychiatric Epidemiology 2011; 4:46l

Kumar GS, Jain A, Hegde S. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka. Indian journal of Psychiatry 2012; 54 (3): 223-226.

Ibrahim AK, Kelly SJ, Glazebrook C. Reliability of a shortened version of the Zagazig Depression Scale and prevalence of depression in an Egyptian university student sample,Comprehensive Psychiatry 2012; 53(5): 638–647,

Yakunina ES, Weigold IK, Weigold A, Hercegovac S, Elsayed N, International students’ personal and multicultural strengths: Reducing acculturative stress and promoting adjustment. Journal of Counseling & Development 2013; 91: 216-223

Ganesh S. Kumar, Animesh Jain, Supriya Hegde Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck depression inventory among students of a medical college in KarnatakaIndian J Psychiatry, 54 (3) (2012), pp. 223–226

Thelma A. Quince, Diana F. Wood, Richard A. Parker, John Benson Prevalence persistence of depression among undergraduate medical students: a longitudinal study at one UK medical school BMJ, 2 (4) (2012), p. e001519

Surbhi Sidana, Jugal Kishore, Vidya Ghosh, Divyansh Gulati, R.C. Jiloha, Tanu Anand Prevalence of depression in students of a medical college in New Delhi: a cross-sectional study Australas Med J, 5 (5) (2012), pp. 247–250

R.C. Kessler, E.E. WaltersEpidemiology of DSM-III-R major depression and minor depression among adolescents and young adults in the National Comorbidity Survey Depress Anxiety, 7 (1) (1998), pp. 3–14

R.C. Kessler Epidemiology of women and depression J Affect Disord, 74 (2003), pp. 5–13

L.N. Dyrbye, M.R. Thomas, T.D. Shanafelt Systematic review of depression, anxiety and other indicators of psychological distress among US and Canadian medical students Acad Med, 81 (2006), pp. 354–373

M.E. Dahlin, N. Joneborg, B. Runeson Stress and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study Med Educ, 39 (2005), pp. 594–604

C.T. Sreeramareddy, P.R. Shankar, V.S. Binu, et al. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal BMC Med Educ, 7 (2007), p. 26

S. Mancevska, L. Bozinovska, J. Tecce, et al. Depression, anxiety and substance use in medical students in the Republic of Macedonia Bratisl Lek Listy, 109 (2008), pp. 568–572

Badria K. Al-Dabal, Manal R. Koura, Rasheed Parveen, Latifa Al-Sowielem, Suhair M. Makki A comparative study of perceived stress among Female Medical and Non-Medical University Students in Dammam, Saudi ArabiaSultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 10 (2) (2010), pp. 231–240

S.N. Bazmi Inam Anxiety and depression among students of a Medical College in Saudi Arabia Int J Health Sci (Qassim), 1 (2) (2007), pp. 295–300

Hamilton, J. L., Stange, J. P., Shapero, B. G., Connolly, S.L., Abramson, L.Y., & Alloy LB.Cognitive vulnerabilities as predictors of stress generation in early adolescence: pathway to depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology2013, 41(7), 1027-39, doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9742-z.

Xiaoting S, Wei Hong, Nan Z, et al. Study on Relationships among Negative Cognitive Style,Remination and Depressive Mood(2010).Peking University Health Science Center,Beijing 100191,P.R.China

Eiser A. The crisis on campus. American Psychological Association 2011; 42: 18-19

Craighead WE, Sheets ES, Craighead LW, Madsen JW. Recurrence of MDD: A prospective study of personality pathology and cognitive distortions. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 2011; 2(2): 83-97. doi: 10.1037/a0020456.

Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Ibrahim HM, Carmody TJ, Arnow B, Klein DN, Markowitz … Kelle, MB. The 16-item quick Inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) clinician rating (QIDS-c) and self-Report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biological psychiatry 2003; 54:573-583.

Radloff LS. The CED-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1977; 1: 385-401.

Meins E, McCarthy-Jones S, Fernyhough C, Lewis G, Bentall RP, Alloy LB. Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire. Personality and individual differences 2012; 52(5-2): 581–585. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.026

Samonthrong R. Adolecents Health needs, Accessebility of service, Depression and quality of life by assisting in the development of community partenership. Doctrol dessertatio, college of public health Chulalongkorn university 2004;

Abela JRZ, Stolow D. Zhang M, Mc-Whinnie CM. Negative Cognitive Style and Past History of Major Depressive Episodes in University Students. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2012; 36(3): 219-227.

Hofmann, SG, Asnaani, A, Vonk, IJJ, Sawyer AT, Fang A. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy Research 2012;36: 427–440.

Waghachavare VB, Dhumale GB, Kadam YR., Gore AD, A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India. Sultan Qaboos University Med J 2013; 13(3): 429-460

Asgari A, Almasi S, The Relationship Between Core Self-Evaluations with Life Satisfaction and Positive and Negative Affect among Students, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research2013; 16 (11): 1581-1588,

Pearson R.M, Heron J, Button K, Bentall R.P, Fernyhough C, Mahedy L, Bowes L, Lewis G. Cognitive styles and future depressed mood in early adulthood: The importance of global attributions 2015;doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.08.057

Chen HQZ, Hongjing TJHZ. Student’s attribution methods and flexibility and mental health Relation of attribution styles and attribution flexibility to mental health in college students. Chaines Mental Health Journal 2012; 26(4):310-314

Sajjad A, Raza J, Erum I, Madeeha A. Perceived Stress, Triggering Factors And Coping Strategies Among First Year Mbbs Students: A Case Of Rehman Medical College Peshawar Pakistan 2015; 1 : I

Mahmoud JSR. The Relationship Of Anxiety, Coping, Thinking Style, Life Satisfaction, Social Support, And Selected Demographics Among Young Adult College Students. University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations (2011); 128. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/gradschool_diss/1281. Thapar A, Collishaw S, Pine DS, Taper AK. Depression in adolescence. Lancet 2012;379(9820):1056–67.

World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Global Burden of Disease. Geneva 2007.

Christensson A, Vaez M, Dickman P, Runeson B. Self-reported depression in first-year nursing students in relation to socio-demographic and educational factors: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Sweden. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2011;46(4):299–310.

Kumar GS, Jain A, Hegde S. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck Depression Inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54(3):223–6.

Ibrahim AK, Kelly SJ, Glazebrook C. Reliability of a shortened version of the Zagazig Depression Scale and prevalence of depression in an Egyptian university student sample. Compr Psychiatry 2012;53(5):638–47.

Yakunina ES, Weigold IK, Weigold A, Hercegovac S, Elsayed N. International students’ personal and multicultural strengths: Reducing acculturative stress and promoting adjustment. J Couns Dev 2013;91(2):216–23.

Kumar GS, Jain A, Hegde S. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using Beck depression inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54(3):223–6.

Quince TA, Wood DF, Parker RA, Benson J. Prevalence persistence of depression among undergraduate medical students: a longitudinal study at one UK medical school. BMJ Open 2012;2(4):e001519.

Sidana S, Kishore J, Ghosh V, Gulati D, Jiloha R, Anand T. Prevalence of depression in students of a medical college in New Delhi: a cross-sectional study. Australas Med J 2012;5(5):247–50.

Kessler RC, Walters EE. Epidemiology of DSM-III-R major depression and minor depression among adolescents and young adults in the National Comorbidity Survey. Depress Anxiety 1998;7(1):3–14.

Kessler RC. Epidemiology of women and depression. J Affect Disord 2003;74(1):5–13.

Dyrbye LN, Thomas MR, Shanafelt TD. Systematic review of depression, anxiety and other indicators of psychological distress among US and Canadian medical students. Acad Med 2006;81(4):354–73.

Dahlin ME, Joneborg N, Runeson B. Stress and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Med Educ 2005;39(6):594–604.

Sreeramareddy CT, Shankar PR, Binu VS, Mukhopadhyay C, Ray B, Menezes RG. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal. BMC Med Educ 2007;7:26.

Mancevska S, Bozinovska L, Tecce J, Pluncevik-Gligoroska J, Sivevska-Smilevska E. Depression, anxiety and substance use in medical students in the Republic of Macedonia. Bratisl Lek Listy 2008;109(12):568–72.

Al-Dabal BK, Koura MR, Rasheed P, Al-Sowielem L, Makki SM. A comparative study of perceived stress among Female Medical and Non-Medical University Students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2010;10(2):231–40.

Inam SB. Anxiety and depression among students of a Medical College in Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Sci (Qasim) 2007;1(2):295–300.

Hamilton JL, Stange JP, Shapero BG, Connolly SL, Abramson LY, Alloy LB. Cognitive vulnerabilities as predictors of stress generation in early adolescence: pathway to depressive symptoms. J Abnormal Child Psychol 2013;41(7):1027–39.

Arielle E. The crisis on campus. Am Psychol Assoc 2011;42(8):18–9.

Craighead WE, Sheets ES, Craighead LW, Madsen JW. Recurrence of MDD: A prospective study of personality pathology and cognitive distortions. Personal Disord 2011;2(2):83–97.

Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Ibrahim HM, Carmody TJ, Arnow B, Klein DN, et al. The 16-item quick Inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) clinician rating (QIDS-c) and self-Report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54(5):573–83.

Kiani IS, Ahmed A, Mahmood F. Anxiety and depression presenting to a general medical clinic. J Surg Pak 2004;9:27–31.

Radloff LS. The CED-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977;1(3):385–401.

McDowell I. Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Zahidie A, Jamali T. An Overview of the Predictors of Depression Among Adult Pakistani Women. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013;23(8):574–80.

Meins E, McCarthy-Jones S, Fernyhough C, Lewis G, Bentall RP, Alloy LB. Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire. Pers Individ Dif 2012;52(5):581–5.

Somrongthong R. The Adolescent health needs, accessibility of services, depression and quality of the life by assisting in the development of communit partnerships. Bangkok: College of Public Health 2004.

Abela JRZ, Stolow D, Zhang M, Mc-Whinnie CM. Negative Cognitive Style and Past History of Major Depressive Episodes in University Students. Cognit Ther Res 2012;36(3):219–27.

Xiaoting S, Wei H, Nan Z. Study on Relationships among Negative Cognitive Style, Remination and Depressive Mood. China Journal of Health Psychology 2010;6:037.

Mahmoud JSR. The Relationship Of Anxiety, Coping, Thinking Style, Life Satisfaction, Social Support, And Selected Demographics Among Young Adult College Students. 2011.

Waghachavare VB, Dhumale GB, Kadam YR, Gore AD. A Study of Stress among Students of Professional Colleges from an Urban area in India. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2013;13(3):429–36.

Asgari A, Almasi S. The Relationship Between Core Self-Evaluations with Life Satisfaction and Positive and Negative Affect among Students. Middle-East J Sci Res 2013;16(11):1581–8.

Pearson RM, Heron J, Button K, Bentall RP, Fernyhough C, Mahedy L, et al. Cognitive styles and future depressed mood in early adulthood: The importance of global attributions. J Affect Disord 2015;171:60–7.

Hofmann SG, Asnaani A, Vonk IJ, Sawyer AT, Fang A. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognit Ther Res 2012;36(5):427–40.

Chen HQZ, Hongjing TJHZ. Student’s attribution methods and flexibility and mental health Relation of attribution styles and attribution flexibility to mental health in college students. Chin Ment Health J 2012;26(4):310–4.

Afridi S, Jamali R, Iqbal E, Razzaq A. Perceived stress, triggering factors and coping strategies among 1st year MBBS students: a case of rehman medical college peshawar, pakistan. J Med Stud. 2015;1(1).


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] [ayubmed.edu.pk]