DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF LEUKOCYTE ESTERASE DIPSTICK TEST FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS IN CIRRHOTIC PATIENTS

Nanik Ram Khatwani, Mumtaz Ali Chhutto, Hakim Ali Abro, Habib -ur- Rahman, Majid Ahmed Shaikh

Abstract


Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is defined as an ascitic fluid infection without an
evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of
the severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Without early antibiotic treatment, this
complication is associated with high mortality rate, so early diagnosis and treatment of SBP is therefore
necessary for survival. Leukocyte esterase dipstick test can rapidly diagnose the SBP. Objectives were
to find out the diagnostic accuracy of leukocyte esterase dipstick test for the diagnosis of spontaneous
bacterial peritonitis. Methods: This cross-sectional, validation study was conducted from January 2009
to June 2009 at Medical Unit-II, Chandka Medical College Hospital Larkana. All the Patients with
cirrhosis and ascites of either gender were included in this study. Paracentesis were performed on
admission. The ascitic fluid obtained at bedside was immediately tested with reagent strip Multistix® 10
SG. Ascitic fluid was then analysed for PMN cell count. The result of reagent strip was compared with
ascitic fluid PMN cell count for determination of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the test,
while taking ascitic fluid PMN count ≥250/mm3 as standard for diagnosis of SBP. Leukocyte esterase
dipstick read positive from +1 to +3 reaction while negative and trace reaction regarded as negative test
result. Results: Total ninety four patients were enrolled in this study. Ninety-four Ascitic fluid samples
were obtained. SBP was diagnosed in 52 (55.3%) patients, 42 (44.7%) patients were negative for SBP
by manual cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of leukocyte esterase dipstick test to
diagnose SBP were 92%, 95%, 96%, 90% respectively. Conclusion: The leukocyte esterase dipstick
test can be used as rapid test for diagnosis of SBP due to its high diagnostic validity.
Keywords: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, ascites, cirrhosis, validity, leukocyte esterase.

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