DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MINERAL BASED HAEMOSTATIC AGENT CONSISTING OF A COMBINATION OF BENTONITE AND ZEOLITE MINERALS

SMJ Mortazavi, M Atefi, Roshan Shomal, N Raadpey, G Mortazavi

Abstract


Background: Haemorrhage remains the greatest threat to life on the battlefield, accounting for
half of all deaths. Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for
stopping sever haemorrhages and has introduced an effective zeolite based haemostatic agent. In
this paper the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two
minerals; bentonite and zeolite are presented. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 male
Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anaesthesia,
animals’ tails were cut off at a thickness of 5 mm by using a pair of surgical scissors. No
intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 5th group received topical nonradioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a
mixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents,
the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time (BT) and
clotting time (CT) were also measured using a chronometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The volume of blood
loss, bleeding and clotting time in control animals were 4.39±1.92 ml, 112.10±39.60 sec and
94.9±54.26 sec respectively. In the 2nd group, in which the animals were treated with a nonradioactive lantern mantle, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting time were 2.34±0.35
ml, 54.50±14.77 sec and 22.9±6.54 sec, respectively. In the 3rd group, in which the animals were
treated with a radioactive lantern mantle, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting time
were 1.50±0.58 ml, 37.10±7.81 sec and 33.5±15.76 sec respectively. In the 4th group, in which the
animals were treated with bentonite mineral, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting time
were 1.81±0.62 ml, 55.70±16.73 sec and 45.9±32.17 sec, respectively. In the 5th group, in which
the animals were treated with a mixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals, the volume of blood loss,
bleeding and clotting time were 1.31±0.60 ml, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the 1st study to investigate the alterations of bleeding and
clotting time following the use of lantern mantle powder as well as bentonite or the mixture of
bentonite-zeolite minerals. The results obtained in this study clearly show the significant
alterations in the volume of blood loss as well as the bleeding or clotting time following the
topical use of the mixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals. Controlling the generation of heat was a
great achievement in development of the novel haemostatic agent produced in this study.
Keywords: Bleeding Time, Clotting Time, Radioactive Lantern Mantle, Minerals, Bentonite, Zeolite

References


Bellamy RF. The causes of death in conventional land

warfare: implications for combat casualty care research. Mil

Med. 1984;149:55–62.

Holcomb JB, McMullin NR, Pearse L, Caruso J, Wade CE,

Oetjen-Gerdes L, et al. Causes of death in US Special

Operations Forces in the global war on terrorism 2001–2004.

Ann Surg. 2007;245:986–91.

Rasmussen TE, Clouse WD, Jenkins DH, Peck MA, Eliason

JL, Smith DL. Echelons of care and the management of

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21(1)

http://www.ayubmed.edu.pk/JAMC/PAST/21-1/Mortazavi.pdf 7

wartime vascular injury: a report from the 332nd EMDG/Air

Force Theater Hospital, Balad Air Base, Iraq. Perspect Vasc

Surg Endovasc Ther. 2006;18:91–9.

Hoyt DB, Bulger EM, Knudson MM. Death in the operating

room: an analysis of a multi-center experience. J Trauma.

;37:426–32.

Beekley AC, Watts DM. Combat trauma experience with the

United States Army 102nd Forward Surgical Team in

Afghanistan. Am J Surg. 2004;187:652–4.

Fox CJ, Gillespie DL, Cox ED, Kragh JF Jr, Mehta SG,

Salinas J, et al. Damage control resuscitation for vascular

surgery in a combat support hospital. J Trauma.

;65(1):1–9.

Arnaud F., T. Tomori, W. Carr, A. McKeague, K. Teranishi,

K. Prusaczyk, R. McCarron. Exothermic Reaction in Zeolite

Hemostatic Dressings: QuikClot ACS and ACS+. Annals of

Biomedical Engineering 2008;36:1708–13.

Acheson, EM, Kheirabad BS, Deguzman R, Dick EJ,

Holcomb JB. Comparison of hemorrhage control agents

applied to lethal extremity arterial hemorrhages in swine. J

Trauma 2005;59:865–74.

Ahuja N, Ostomel TA, Rhee P, Stucky GD, Conran R, Chen

Z, et al. Testing of modified zeolite haemostatic dressings in

a large animal model of lethal groin injury. J. Trauma

;61:1312–20.

Alam HB, Uy GB, Miller D, Koustova E, Hancock

T, Inocencio R, et al. Comparative analysis of hemostatic

agents in a swine model of lethal groin injury. J Trauma

;54:1077–82.

Alam HB, Chen Z, Jaskille A, Querol RI, Koustova

E, Inocencio R, et al. Application of a zeolite haemostatic

agent achieves 100% survival in a lethal model of complex

groin injury in swine. J Trauma 2004;56:974–83.

Arnaud F, Tomori T, Saito R, McKeague A, Prusaczyk

WK, McCarron RM. Comparative efficacy of granular and

bagged formulations of the haemostatic agent QuikClot. J

Trauma 2007;63:775–82.

McManus J, Hurtado T, Pusateri A, Knoop KJ. A case series

describing thermal injury resulting from zeolite use for

hemorrhage control in combat operations. Prehosp Emerg

Care 2007;11:67–71.

Ostomel TA, Shi Q, Stoimenov PK, Stucky GD. Metal oxide

surface charge mediated hemostasis. Langmuir

;23:1233–8.

Mortazavi SMJ, Mehdizadeh S, Zehtabian M. and Sina S.

Development of an economical radon-resistant construction

technique that is applicable in national radon-reduction

programmes. Int. J. Low Radiation. In press.

Montes HG, Fritz B, Clement A, Michau N. Modelling of

geochemical reactions and experimental cation exchange in

MX 80 bentonite. J Environ Manage 2005;77(1):35–46.

Arthur R, Sasamoto H, Yui M. ‘Potential complications in

the development of a thermodynamic database for

hyperalkaline, argillaceous systems’, Proceedings of the

International Workshop on Bentonite-Cement Interaction in

Repository Environments 2004;14–16 April, Tokyo, Japan.

Kuznicki SM, Bell VA, Nair S, Hillhouse HW, Jacubinas

RM, Braunbarth CM, et al. A titanosilicate molecular sieve

with adjustable pores for size-selective adsorption of

molecules. Nature 2001;412:720–4.

Ursini O, Lilla E, Montanari R. The investigation on cationic

exchange capacity of zeolites: the use as selective ion

trappers in the electrokinetic soil technique. Hazard Mater J

;137:1079–88.

Kocasoy G, Sahin V. Heavy metal removal from industrial

wastewater by clinoptilolite. J Environ Sci Health A Tox

Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2007;42:2139–46.

Nilchi A, Maalek B, Khanchi A, Ghanadi Maragheh M,

Bagheri A, Savoji K. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste

management: natural Iranian zeolites. Appl Radiat Isot

;64(1):138–43.

Mortazavi SMJ, Rahmani MR, Rahnama A, and Aghaiee

MM. The Positive Bio-Effects of Topical Application of

Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder on Wound Healing in

Rat. J Rafsanjan Uni Medl Sci 2006;5(2):180–6.

Mortazavi SMJ, Rahmani MR, Rahnama A, Saeed-Pour A,

Nouri E, Hosseini N, and Aghaiee MM. A survey on

stimulatory effects of topical application of radioactive

lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Iran J Radiat Res

;6(2):97–102.

Mohammadi H and Mehdizadeh S. Re-identification of

Th content and relative radioactivity measurements in a

number of imported gas mantles. Health Physics

;44:649–53.

Luetzelschwab JW, Googins SW. Radioactivity released from

burning gas lantern mantles. Health Phys 1984;46:873–81.

Poljanc K, Steinhauser G, Sterba JH, Buchtela K, Bichler M.

Beyond low-level activity: on a "non-radioactive" gas

mantle. Sci Total Environ. 2007;374(1):36–42.

ARPANSA. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety

Agency Radioactivity in Lantern Mantles. Fact Sheet 18, 2006.

Orient JM, Sapira JD. Sapira's Art & Science of Bedside

Diagnosis, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;

p. 672.

WIPO. Physical methods of dispersing characteristic use

particles and compositions thereof. http://www.wipo.int/

pctdb/en/wo.jsp?IA=WO2003040226&DISPLAY=DESC

Carraway JW, Kent D, Young K, Cole A, Friedman R, Ward

KR. Comparison of a new mineral based hemostatic agent to

a commercially available granular zeolite agent for

hemostasis in a swine model of lethal extremity arterial

hemorrhage. Resuscitation. 2008;78:230–5.

Perkins JG, Cap AP, Weiss BM, Reid TJ, Bolan CD. Massive

transfusion and nonsurgical hemostatic agents. Crit Care

Med 2008;36(7 Suppl):S325–39.

Kozen BG, Kircher SJ, Henao J, Godinez FS, Johnson AS.

An alternative hemostatic dressing: comparison of CELOX,

HemCon, and QuikClot. Acad Emerg Med 2008;15:74–81.

Recinos G, Inaba K, Dubose J, Demetriades D, Rhee P. Local

and systemic hemostatics in trauma: a review. Ulus Travma

Acil Cerrahi Derg 2008;14(3):175–81.

Rhee P, Brown C, Martin M, Salim A, Plurad D, Green

D, Chambers L, et al. QuikClot use in trauma for hemorrhage

control: case series of 103 documented uses. J Trauma

;64:1093–9.

Pusateri AE, Delgado AV, Dick EJ Jr, Martinez RS, Holcomb

JB, Ryan KL. Application of a granular mineral-based

hemostatic agent (QuikClot) to reduce blood loss after grade V

liver injury in swine. J Trauma 2004;57:555–62.

Wright JK, Kalns J, Wolf EA, Traweek F, Schwarz S, Loeffler

CK, et al. Thermal injury resulting from application of a

granular mineral hemostatic agent. J Trauma 2004;57:224–30.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] [ayubmed.edu.pk]