COMPARISON OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AMONG STUDENTS STUDYING IN RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND NON-RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS

Naheed Khattak, Syed Hamid Habib, Ubaid ur Rahman, Noreen Zeeshan, Seema Gul

Abstract


Background: Testosterone levels are shown to be affected by the social environment where individuals spend most of the duration of their daily activities. It has been reported that religion may play a role in reducing harm and contributing to the resilience of young people. The objective of the study was to compare the serum Testosterone level of College students with that of the Madrassa students of the same age group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a total of 145 participants between 18–25 years of age. Subjects from the religious institutions (Madrassa) were 30 and non- religious institutions (Colleges) were 115. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants for serum testosterone levels (measured using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique). Results: Students studying in religious institutions (Madrassa) have significantly (p=0.001) lower serum Testosterone (6.5±2.01 ng/ml) levels compared to students of the non-religious institution, i.e., 9.08±3.07 ng/ml. Conclusion: The social environment of studies like madrassa or college affects testosterone hormone levels.

Keywords: Serum testosterone levels; Religious institutions; Madrassa

Full Text:

PDF

References


Resnick MD, Bearman PS, Blum RW, Bauman KE, Harris KM, Jones JJ, et al. Protecting Adolescents from Harm Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. JAMA 1997;278(10):823–32.

Werner E, Smith R. Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood 1992.

Colucci E, Martin G. Religion and Spirituality Along the Suicidal Path. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2008;38(2):229–44.

Hayatsyah H, Tafsir A, Syafrin N. The urgency of the Islamic education in drug prevention for the younger generation islam. Tawazun J Pendidik Islam 2018;9(2):198–214.

Bonelli R, Dew RE, Koenig HG, Rosmarin DH, Vasegh S. Religious and Spiritual Factors in Depression: Review and Integration of the Research. Depress Res Treat 2012;2012:962860.

Ellison CG, Boardman JD, Williams DR, Jackson JS. Religious Involvement, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the 1995 Detroit area study. Soc Forces 2001;80(1):215–49.

Halpern C, Udry J, Campbell B, Suchindran C, Mason GA. Testosterone and religiosity as predictors of sexual attitudes and activity among adolescent males: A biosocial model. J Biosoc Sci 1994;26(2):217–34.

Udry JR, Billy JO, Morris NM, Groff TR, Raj MH. Serum androgenic hormones motivate sexual behavior in adolescent boys. Fertil Steril 1985;43(1):90–4.

Fox CA, Ismail AA, Love DN, Kirkham KE, Loraine JA. Studies on the relationship between plasma testosterone levels and human sexual activity. J Endocrinol 1972;52(1):51–8.

Fox C, Ismail AA, Love DN, Loraine JA. Plasma testosterone levels and sexual activity in a male subject. J Endocrinol 1970;48(4):xli.

Udry JR. Biological predispositions and social control in adolescent sexual behavior. Am Sociol Rev 1988;1:709–22.

Davidson J, Camargo CA, Smith ER. Effects of androgen on sexual behavior in hypogonadal men. J Clin Enocrinol Metabol 1979;48(6):955–8.

Luisi IM & Franchi F. Double blind group comparative study of testosterone undecanoate and mesteralone in hypogonadal male patients. J Endocrinol Invest 1980;3(3):305–8.

Everly, GS, Lating JM, Everly GS, Lating JM. Stress-Related Disease: A Review. In: A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response. Springer New York, 2019; p.85–127.

Arthur C, Guyton AC, Hall JE. Human physiology and mechanisms of disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996; p.752.

Karama S, Lecours AR, Leroux JM, Bourgouin P, Beaudoin G, Joubert S, et al. Areas of brain activation in males and females during viewing of erotic film excerpts. Hum Brain Mapp 2002;16(1):1–13.

Stark R. Physiology and faith: Addressing the “universal” gender difference in religious commitment. J Sci Study Relig 2002;41(3):495–507.

Liening SH, Josephs RA. It is not just about testosterone: Physiological mediators and moderators of testosterone’s behavioral effects. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2010;4(11):982–94.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact Number: +92-992-382571

email: [jamc] [@] [ayubmed.edu.pk]