A SURVEY OF DEATH ADJUSTMENT IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
AbstractBackground: The Death Adjustment Hypothesis (DAH) postulates two key themes. Its first part postulates that death should not be considered the end of existence and the second part emphasizes that the belief in immortal pattern of human existence can only be adopted in a morally rich life with the attitude towards morality and materialism balanced mutually. We wanted to explore Death Adjustment in the Indian subcontinent and the differences among, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. We also wanted to find the relationship between death adjustment (i.e., adaptation to death), materialistic thoughts and death adjustment thoughts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from May 2010 to June 2013. Using a purposive sampling strategy, a sample of 296 participants from the Indian subcontinent [Pakistan (n=100), Bangladesh (n=98) and India (n=98)] was selected. Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) was used to measure death adjustment. The rest of the variables were measured using lists of respective thoughts, described in elaborated DAH. Analyses were carried out using SPSSv13. Results: The mean death adjustment score for Pakistani, Indian and Bangaldeshi population were 115.26±26.4, 125.87±24.3 and 114.91±21.2, respectively. Death adjustment was better with older age (r=0.20) and with lower scores on materialistic thoughts (r=-0.26). However, this was a weak relation. The three nationalities were compared with each other by using Analysis of variance. Death adjustment thoughts and death adjustment were significantly different when Indians were compared with Bangladeshis (p=0.00) and Pakistanis (p=0.006) but comparison between Bangladeshis and Pakistanis showed no significant difference. Conclusions: Subjects with lesser materialistic thoughts showed better death adjustment. There are differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in adjusting to death.Keywords: Death Adjustment Hypotheses (DAH), Death adjustment, Materialism, Existence, Afterlife
Hossain MS, Gilbert P. Concepts of death: a key to our adjustment. Illness Crises & Loss 2010;18(1):19–36.
Wong PTP. Meaning in life and meaning in death in successful aging. In: Tomer A, editor. Death attitudes and the older adults: theories, concepts and applications. Philadelphia, PA: Bruner-Routledge;2000:pp23–35.
DK Illustrated Oxford Dictionary. UK: Dorling Kindersley Limited and Oxford University Press; 2003.
Hossain MS, Siddique MZ. Does religiosity help Muslims adjust to death? A research note. Omega (Westport) 2008;57(1):113–9.
Frankl VE. Man’s search for meaning. New York: Washington Square Press; 1959.
Meyers K. The truth about death and dying. 2nd ed. New York: DWJ Books LLC;2009.
Hossain MS. Human immortality: death and adjustment hypotheses elaborated. South Carolina: Book Surge Publishing; 2008.
Neimeyer RA, Wittkowski J, Moser RP. Psychological research on death attitude: an overview and evaluation. Death Stud 2004;28:309–40.
Hoelter JW. Multidimensional treatment of fear of death. J Consult Clin Psychol 1979;47(5):996–9.
Neimeyer RA, Moore MK. Validity and reliability of the multidimensional fear of death scale. In: Neimeyer RA, ed. Death anxiety handbook: research instrumentation, and application. Washington, Dc: Taylor & Francis, 1994;103–119.
Depaola SJ, Griffin M, Young JR, Neimeyer RA. Death anxiety and attitudes toward the elderly among older adults: the role of gender and ethnicity. Death Stud 2003;27(4):335–54.
Maltby Y, Day L. The reliability and validity of the death obsession scale among English university and adult samples. Pers Individ Dif 2000;28:695–700.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.