CAREER ASPIRATIONS OF JUNIOR DOCTORS IN PAKISTAN: EXPLORING REASONS BEHIND THE BRAIN DRAIN
Keywords:Brain drain, Doctors, Emigration, Medical Graduates, Specialization
AbstractBackground: Mass medical migration from Pakistan to more developed counties pose a threat to the professional resources of Pakistan. The aim of our study is to assess magnitude of the brain drain and to assess reasons behind it. Methods: A Cross-sectional study, using convenience non-probability sampling, with sample of 201 Ayub Medical College graduates. A simple questionnaire was designed on Google Forms, comprising of three sections including bio data, intentions to emigrate and the last part evaluating work environment, training and personal factors associated with the desire to train abroad. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0, descriptive statistics were calculated and Chi square test was used to determine association between various groups of push and pull factors and the intention to train abroad. A significance level (p-value) of less than 0.05 was used. Results: Over half (63.68%) of our participants wanted to emigrate, and out of the remaining 71.6% would consider it in the future if given the opportunity. Overall, more males wanted to train overseas as compared to females, and the United Kingdom was the most popular destination. The leading factor push factors behind wanting to move abroad were quality of training and a poor work environment. While family commitments and costly examinations were the main reasons to stay in Pakistan. Conclusion: A significant number of young doctors are planning on pursue training/careers abroad. If this large-scale brain drain is not addressed on time, it can have various implications in the future. Hence the Government and Medical authorities must take action in order to prevent further loss.
Qureshi AZ, Rathore FA. Number of Pakistani physicians working abroad; Do we really need to know? J Pak Med Assoc 2014;64(12):1410–2.
Imran N, Azeem Z, Haider II, Amjad N, Bhatti MR. Brain Drain: Post Graduation Migration Intentions and the influencing factors among Medical Graduates from Lahore, Pakistan. BMC Res Notes 2011;4:417.
Baker C. NHS staff from overseas: statistics. London: House of Commons Library. 2021.
Boulet JR, Duvivier RJ, Pinsky WW. Prevalence of International Medical Graduates From Muslim-Majority Nations in the US Physician Workforce From 2009 to 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3(7):e209418.
Atif K, Khan HU, Maqbool S. Job satisfaction among doctors, a multi-faceted subject studied at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. Pak J Med Sci 2015;31(3):610–4.
Anjum A, Anjum A, Anjum U, Ming X. An empirical study exploring the determinants of stress among medical healthcare professionals. Afr Health Sci 2019;19(4):3091–9.
Biggs JSG. Postgraduate medical training in Pakistan: observations and recommendations. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2008;8(1):58–63.
Rehman SU, Kumar R, Siddiqui N, Shahid Z, Syed S. Stress, job satisfaction and work hours in medical and surgical residency programs in private sector teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62(10):1109–12.
Saaiq M, Zaman KU. Residents’ perceptions of their working conditions during residency training at PIMS. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010;20(6):400–4.
Saaiq M, Zaman KU. Postgraduate Medical Education: Residents Rating the Quality of Their Training. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013;23(1):72–6.
Saleem J, Ishaq M, Zakar R, Suddahazai IHK, Fischer F. Experiences of frontline Pakistani emigrant physicians combatting COVID-19 in the United Kingdom: A qualitative phenomenological analysis. BMC Health Serv Res 2021;21(1)291.
Jalal M, Bardhan KD, Sander D, Illing J. International: overseas doctors of the NHS: migration, transition, challenges and towards resolution. Future Healthc J 2019;6(1):76–81.
Hassan Z, Mahboob U, Ashfaq K, Riaz N, Akram B, Niazi B. Management of professionalism matters by foreign returned doctors in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. J Pak Med Assoc 2020;70(12):2154–8.
Hashim A. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK. Adv Med Educ Pract 2017;8:441–5.
Syed NA, Khimani F, Andrades M, Ali AK, Paul R. Reasons for migration among medical students from Karachi. Med Educ 2007;42(1):61–8.
Sheikh A, Naqvi SHA, NaqviSHS, Bandukda MY. Physician migration at its roots: a study on the factors contributing towards a career choice abroad among students at a medical school in Pakistan. Glob Health 2012;8:43.
Khan KW, Nadeem S, Ain QU, Muhammad F, Zafar T, Nisa MU. Attitude of Medical Students about Migrating Abroad: A Cross Sectional Study. Life Sci 2021;2(2):63–5.
Kamal A, Shaikh MA. Post-graduation plans of medical students- Perspective from Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2013;63(2):287–8.
Hossain N, Shah N, Shah T, Lateef SB. Physicians’ Migration: Perceptions of Pakistani Medical Students. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016;26(8):996–701.
Skilled Worker visa: shortage occupations for healthcare and education. [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 26]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/skilled-worker-visa-shortage-occupations-for-health-and-education/skilled-worker-visa-shortage-occupations-for-healthcare-and-education
NHS: Physicians Higher Specialty Recruitment. [Internet]. [cited 2021 Dec 27]. Available from: https://phstrecruitment.org.uk/recruitment-process/am-i-eligible/uk-eligibility
Kumar R, Ahmed J, Shaikh BT, Hafeez R, Hafeez A. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan. Hum Resour Health 2013;11:2.
Shah M, Hasan S, Malik S, Sreeramareddy CT. Perceived stress, sources and severity of stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani medical school. BMC Med Educ 2010;10:2.
Hassan M, Hussain T, Ahmaed SM, Fraz TR, Rehmat Z. Perceived stress and stressors among house officers. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2014;18(3):145–9.
Tahir MW, Kauser R, Tahir MA. Brain drain of doctors; causes and consequences in Pakistan. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2011;75:406–12.
Hasan M, Imran S, Naqvi SAW. Frustration-aggression leading to health crisis: Case of Pakistani young doctors’ movement. Pak Soc Sci Rev 2020;4(1):493–506.
Abbasi IN. Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma. BMC Med Ethics 2014;15:24.
Mirza Z. Healthcare and Budget 2021-22. Dawn News [Internet]. 2021 Aug 6 [cited 2021 Dec 27] Available from: https://www.dawn.com/news/1639082
Khan Z. Pakistan’s doctors protest at killing of 13 colleagues this year. BMJ 2002;324(7341):805.
Ahmed F, Memon MK, Memon S. Violence against doctors, a serious concern for healthcare organizations to ponder about. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018;25:3–5.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.