CAUSES OF FEVER IN ADULTS IN THALL AND SURROUNDING AREAS
AbstractBackground: The most common symptom for which the patients are admitted in our hospitals is fever. This study was carried out to know the causes of fever based on clinical and laboratory findings. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 865 consecutive male patients with fever of 100ºF and above were included in the study conducted from January 2010 to April 2012. Results: All the patients were male having age between 17 years and 45 years. Out of the 865 patients, 507 (58.61%) came out to be malarial parasite slide positive, 186 (21.50%) patients were malarial parasite slide negative but were having clinical picture of malaria and responded to anti-malarial treatment, 73 (8.44%) patients were of respiratory tract infections, 21 (2.43%) patients were having gastro enteritis, 20 (2.31%) were diagnosed as cases of typhoid fever, 17 (1.97%) were having urinary tract infections, 24 (2.77%) patients were referred to medical specialist and the rest 17 (1.97%) were grouped as others. Conclusion: The most common cause of fever in our study was malaria. Respiratory tract infections are the second most common cause.Keywords: Malaria, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, Chloroquine.
Crump JA, Youssef FG, Luby SP, Wasfy MO, Rangel JM, Taalat M, et al. Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9(5):539–44.
Archibald LK, Reller LB. Clinical microbiology in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7(2):302–5.
Guerin PJ, Olliaro P, Nosten F, Druilhe P, Laxminarayan R, Binka F, et al. Malaria: current status of control, diagnosis, treatment, and a proposed agenda for research and development. Lancet Infect Dis 2002;2(9):564–73.
Ssali FN, Kamya MR, Wabwire-Mangen F, Kasasa S, Joloba M, Williams D, et al. A prospective study of community-acquired bloodstream infections among febrile adults admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1998;19(5):484–9.
Archibald LK, McDonald LC, Rheanpumikankit S, Tansuphaswadikul S, Chaovanich A, Eampokalap B, et al. Fever and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection as Sentinels for Emerging Mycobacterial and Fungal Bloodstream Infections in Hospitalized Patients 15 Years Old, Bangkok. J Infect Dis 1999;180(1):87–92.
Archibald LK, McDonald LC, Nwanyanwu O, Kazembe P, Dobbie H, Tokars J, et al. A hospital-based prevalence survey of bloodstream infections in febrile patients in Malawi: implications for diagnosis and therapy. J Infect Dis 2000;181(4):1414–20.
Bell M, Archibald LK, Nwanyanwu O, Dobbie H, Tokars J, Kazembe PN, et al. Seasonal variation in the etiology of bloodstream infections in a febrile inpatient population in a developing country. Int J Infect Dis 2001;5(2):63–9.
Anderson KE, Joseph SW, Nasution R, Butler T, Van Peenen P, Irving GS, et al. Febrile illnesses resulting in hospital admission: a bacteriological and serological study in Jakarta, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1976;25(1):116–21.
Murdoch DR, Woods CW, Zimmerman MD, Dull PM, Belbase RH, Keenan AJ, et al. The etiology of febrile illness in adults presenting to Patan hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;70(6):670–5.
Leelarasamee A, Chupaprawan C, Chenchittikul M, Udompanthurat S. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87(5):464–72.
Pradutkanchana J, Pradutkanchana S, Kemapanmanus M, Wuthipum N, Silpapojakul K. The etiology of acute pyrexia of unknown origin in children after a flood Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003 Mar;34(1):175–8.
Axelrod YK, Diringer MN. Temperature management in acute neurologic disorders. Neurol Clin 2008;26(2):585–603.
Polderman KH, Mayer SA, Menon D. Hypothermic therapy after traumatic brain injury in children. N Engl J Med 2008;359(11):1178.
Laupland KB. Fever in the critically ill medical patient. Critical care medicine 2009;37(7):S273-S8.
Hart BL. Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1988;12(2):123–37.
Johnson RW. The concept of sickness behavior: a brief chronological account of four key discoveries. Vet Immununol Immunopathol 2002;87(3):443–50.
Kelley KW, Bluthé R-M, Dantzer R, Zhou J-H, Shen W-H, Johnson RW, et al. Cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun 2003;17(1):S112–8.
Khan HU, Khattak AM. A study of prevalence of malaria in adult population of DI Khan, Pakistan. Biomedica 2006;22(14):99–104.
Hozhabri S, Akhtar S, Rahbar MH, Luby SP. Prevalence of plasmodium slide positivity among the children treated for malaria, Jhangara, Sindh. J Pak Med Assoc 2000;50(12):401-5
Sheikh AS, Sheikh AA, Sheikh NS, Paracha SM. Endemicity of malaria in Quetta. Pak J Med Res 2005;44:41–5.
Willke A, Ergonul O, Bayar B. Widal test in diagnosis of typhoid fever in Turkey. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002;9(4):938–41.
Ellis RD, Fukuda MM, McDaniel P, Welch K, Nisalak A, Murray CK, et al. Causes of fever in adults on the Thai-Myanmar border. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006;74(1):108–13.