PROPOLIS AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MDR-ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII
AbstractBackground: Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important health care problem. The organism is now identified as an important nosocomial pathogen particularly in the intensive care settings. The therapeutic options to treat this pathogen are limited; thus it needs testing for alternatives, like those of plant origin or natural products. Propolis is one of such products which have been tested against this organism. Methods: A. baumannii (n=32) were collected from Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore. The isolates were identified on the basis of their morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical profile. The susceptibility of the isolates to various antimicrobials was evaluated as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to (CLSI 2010). An ethanolic extract of propolis was prepared by the ultrasonic extraction method and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined by the agar dilution technique. Results: The isolates were found to be resistant to most of the commonly used anti-acinetobacter antimicrobials; doxycycline however was the exception. Propolis from Sargodha (EPS) and Lahore (EPL) showed zones of inhibition of 21.8±.29 mm and 15.66±2.18 mm respectively. MIC ranges of EPS and EPL similarly was from 1.5–2.0 mg/ml and 4.0–4.5 mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: It is clear that EPS has potential edge of activity as compared to EPL. Nevertheless the potential efficacy of propolis must be subjected to pharmaceutical kinetics and dynamics to precisely determine its potential antimicrobial usefulness.Keywords: MDR Acinetobacter baumannii; Propolis; MIC
Towner KJ. Acinetobacter: an old friend, but a new enemy. J Hosp Infect 2009;73(4):355–63.
Dauner DG, May JR, Steele JC. Assessing antibiotic therapy for ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII infections in an academic medical center. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2008;27(11):1021–4.
Talbot GH, Bradley J, Edwards JE Jr, Gilbert D, Scheld M, Bartlett JG, et al. Bad bugs need drugs: an update on the development pipeline from the Antimicrobial Availability Task Force of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42(5):657–68.
Abbo A, Carmeli Y, Navon-Venezia S, Siegman-Igra Y, Schwaber MJ. Impact of multi-drug-resistant acinetobacter baumannii on clinical outcomes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007;26(11):793–800.
Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012;18(3):268–81.
Syamsudin, Wiryowidagdo S, Simanjuntak P, Heffen WL. Chemical Composition of Propolis from Different Regions in Java and their Cytotoxic Activity. Am J Biochem Biotech 2009;5(4):180–3.
Koru O, Toksoy F, Acikel CH, Tunca YM, Baysallar M, Uskudar Guclu A, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from different geographical origins against certain oral pathogens. Anaerobe 2007;13(3-4):140–5.
Boyanova L, Kolarov R, Gergova G, Mitov I. In vitro activity of Bulgarian propolis against 94 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobe 2006;12(4):173–7.
Trusheva, B, Trunkova D Bankova V. Different extraction methods of biologically active components from propolis: a preliminary study. Chem Cent J 2007;1:13.
Najmadeen HH, Kakamand FAK. Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis Collected in Different Regions of Sulaimani Province-Kurdistanm Region/Iraq. J Duhok Univ 2008;12(1):233–9.
Kong BH, Hanifah YA, Yusof MY, Thong KL. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genomic diversity of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Jpn J Infect Dis 2011;64(4):337–40.
Somily AM, Absar MM, Arshad MZ, Al Aska AI, Shakoor ZA, Fatani AJ, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii against carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline. Saudi Med J 2012;33(7):750–5.
Rahbar M, Mehrgan H, Aliakbari NH. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a 1000-bed tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2010;53(2):290–3.
Hasan, Perveen K, Olsen B, Zahra R. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals in Pakistan. J Med Microbiol 2014;63(Pt 1):50–5.
Hannan A, Qamar MU, Usman M, Ahmad K, Waheed I, Rauf K. Multidrug resistant microorganisms causing neonatal septicemia: In a tertiary care hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Afr J Microbiol Res 2013;7(19):1896–1902.
Yaghoubi SMJ, Ghorbani GR, Soleimanian ZS, Satari R. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition. DARU 2007;15(1):45–8.
Gebara ECE, Lima LA, Mayer MPA. Propolis antimicrobial activity againstperiodontopathic bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2002 33(4):365–9.
Boyanova L, Gergova G, Nikolov R, Derejian S, Lazarova E, Katsarov N, et al. Activity of Bulgarian propolis against 94 Helicobacter pylori strains in vitro by agar-well diffusion, agar dilution and disc diffusion methods. J Med Microbiol 2005;54(Pt 5):481–3.
Rahman MM, Richardson A, Sofian-Azirun MF. Antibacterial activity of propolis and honey against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Afr J Microbiol Res 2010;4(16):1872–8
Al-Waili N, Al-Ghamdi A, Ansari MJ, Al-Attal Y, Salom K. Synergistic effects of honey and propolis toward drug multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans isolates in single and polymicrobial cultures. Int J Med Sci 2012;9(9):793–800.
Salomao K, Pereira PR, Campos LC, Borba CM, Cabello PH, Marcucci MC, et al. Brazilian propolis: correlation between chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2008;5(3):317–24.
Kilic A, Ucar M, Baysallar M, Salih B, Sorkun K, Yildiran ST, et al. Antimicrobial Effects of Propolis and Honey Samples Collected from some Regions of Turkey. AJCI 2007;1(4):213–8.
Zeighampour, F, Mohammadi-Sichani M, Shams E, Naghavi NS. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Ethanol Extract against Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria Isolated from Burn Wound Infections. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 2014;16(3):25–30.