FOUR MONTH INTENSIVE TEACHING OF ANATOMY: AN ACCEPTABLE FOUNDATION FOR THE CLINICAL YEARS

Authors

  • Najam Siddiqi
  • Muthusami John
  • Mark Norrish
  • Geener John

Abstract

Background: This study was undertaken to determine whether medical students’ recall of anatomy is lost when the student reaches clinical years, and whether a four month teaching of Anatomy in the pre-clinical years had any impact. Methods: A cross-sectional study, using a short answer type paper consisting of eight questions in anatomy was administered randomly to 5th, 6th and 7th year medical students at Oman Medical College, Sultanate of Oman. These questions were further sub-divided into reinforced clinically oriented gross anatomy questions and not-reinforced gross anatomy questions taken from the topics that were covered during the pre-clinical year. The reinforced questions were taken from topics taught by clinicians during the clinical rotations. Results: Review of the overall scores showed a sharp decline of anatomy recall one year after the anatomy course. Average scores for the students in years 6 and 7 (clinical years) for the reinforced questions were significantly higher than the not-reinforced questions. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decline of anatomy recall taught in a four-month intensive teaching course during the pre-clinical years, however, adequate knowledge in anatomy has been stored in the memory and reinforcement during clinical exposure enhances memory recall.Keywords: Four-month intensive teaching, recall of anatomy, reinforcement, medical students

References

Kamrin BA. The current status of anatomical teaching in selected medical schools. J Med Educ 1954;29:31–8

Older J. Anatomy: a must for teaching the next generation.Surg J R Coll Surg Edinb Irel 2004;2:79–90

Adam C. Student doctors skipping anatomy lessons. News, The Australian, March 31, 2010.

Sugand K, Abrahams P, Khurana A. The anatomy of anatomy: a review for its modernization. Anat Sci Educ 2010;3(2):83–93

Benjamin EM, Prince KJ, Drukker J, van der Vleuten CP, Scherpbier AJ. How much anatomy is enough? Anat Sci Educ 2008;1:184–8.

Craig S, Tait N, Boers D, McAndrew D. Review of Anatomy education in Australia and New Zealand medical schools. ANZ J Surg 2010;80(4):212–6

Prince KJ, Scherpbier AJ, van Mameren H, Drukker J, van der Vleuten CP. Do students have sufficient knowledge of clinical anatomy? Med Educ 2005;39:326–32

Waterston SW, Stewart IJ. Survey of clinicians' attitudes to the anatomical teaching and knowledge of medical students. Clin Anat 2005;18:380–4

D’Eon MF. Knowledge loss of medical students on first year basic science courses at the University of Saskatchewan. BMC Med Educ 2006;6:5

Turney BW. Anatomy in a modern medical curriculum. Ann R Coll Surg Eng 2007;89:104–7

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_school_in_the_United_Kingdom

Neville AJ. "Problem-based learning and medical education forty Years on". Med Princ Pract 2009;18(1):1–9

Vernon DT, Blake RL. Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluate research. Acad Med 1993;68:550–63

Kennedy WB, Kelley PR Jr, Saffran M. Use of NBME examinations to assess retention of basic science knowledge. J Med Educ 1981;56:167–73.

Norman G. The essential role of basic science in medical education: the perspective from psychology. Clin Invest Med 2000;23:47–51; discussion 52–4.

Bethe A. Kritische Betrachtungen uber den vorlinischen Unterricht. [Critical observation on pre-clinical education] Klinische Wochenschrift, 1928;7(31):1481-1483

Cole L. What is wrong with the medical curriculum? Lancet 1932;220 (8) :253–4

Miller GE, Graser HP, Abrahamson S, Harnack RS, Cohen IS, Land A. Teaching and learning in Medical School. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961: 59–60

Dornhorst AC, Hunter A. Fallacies in medical education. Lancet 1967;23(2):666–7

Blizard PJ, Carmody JJ, Holland RA. Medical students’ retention of knowledge of physics and biochemistry on entry to a course in physiology. Br J Med Educ 1975;9(4):249–54

Blunt MJ, Blizard PJ. Recall and retrieval of anatomical knowledge. Br J Med Educ 1975;9:252–63

Ling Y, Swanson DB, Holtzman K, Bucak SD. Retention of basic sciences information by senior medical students. Acad Med 2008;83:82–5

Custers EJ, Ten Cate OT. Very long-term retention of basic science knowledge in doctors after graduation. Med Educ 2011;45:422–30

DuBois AB, Nemir P Jr, Schumacher CF, Hubbard JP. Graduate medical education in basic sciences. J Med Educ 1969;44:1035–43

Krebs R, Hofer R, Bloch R, Guibert J-J. Conversation and forgetting of the biological knowledge at the propaedeutic exam [in French] 1994;4:10-5.

Bransford JD, Brown AL, Cocking RR, Editors: How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

EL-bab MF, Sheikh B, Shalaby S, EL-Awady M, Allam A. Evaluation of basic medical sciences knowledge retention among medical students. Ibnosina J Med BS 2011;3:45–52

Halpern DF. Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc. Publishers, 2003.

Rudland JR, Rennie SC. The determination of the relevance of basic science learning objectives to clinical practice using a questionnaire survey. Med Educ 2003;37:962-5

Gonnella JS, Hojat M, Erdmann JB, Veloski JJ. Assessment measures in medical school, residency, and practice: the connections. New York: Springer, 1993.

Kerfoot BP, DeWolf WC, Masser BA, Church PA, Federman DD. Spaced education improves the retention of clinical knowledge by medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Med Educ 2007;41:23–31

Ward PJ. First year medical students' approaches to study and their outcomes in a gross anatomy course. Clin Anat 2011;24:120–7

Spencer AL, Brosenitsch T, Levine AS, Kanter SL. Back to the basic sciences: An innovative approach to teaching senior medical students how best to integrate basic science and clinical medicine. Basic Sci Educ 2008;83:662–9

Downloads

Published

2014-12-01