• Muhammad Jaffar Khan Khyber Medical University, Peshawar
  • Sadia Fatima Khyber Medical University Peshawar
  • Mehnaz Akhtar Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar
  • Muhammad Owais Khyber College of Dentistry


Understanding the text is crucial to achieve depth in understanding of complex concepts for students at all levels of education for whom English is not their first language. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that stimulate learning through a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The process of summarizing, question-generating, clarifying and predicting allows the gaps to be recognised and filled by the student, who is in control of the learning process and able to analyse and reflect upon the reading material. Whereas reciprocal teaching has been applied at school and college level, little is known about its effectiveness in medical education. Incorporating reciprocal teaching in early years of medical education such as reading the literature and summarizing the flow of information in the study of integrated body systems could be an area to explore. Feasibility exercises and systematic validation studies are required to confirm authors’ assertion.Keywords: Reciprocal teaching; Curriculum, Adult education; Adult learning

Author Biographies

Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar

Assistant Professor,Department of Biochemistry

Sadia Fatima, Khyber Medical University Peshawar

Assistant ProfessorBiochemistry Department

Mehnaz Akhtar, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar

Consultant Gynaecology and Obstetrics

Muhammad Owais, Khyber College of Dentistry

House OfficerKhyber College of Dentistry


Palinscar AS, Brown AL. Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cogn Instr 1984;1(2):117–75.

Coy DR, Kovacs-Long J. Maslow and Miller: An exploration of gender and affiliation in the journey to competence. J Couns Dev JCD 2005;83(2):138.

Rosenshine B, Meister C. Reciprocal Teaching: A Review of Nineteen Experimental Studies. 1991.

Klingner JK, Vaughn S. Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language. Elem Scho J 1996:275–93.

Doolittle PE, Hicks D, Triplett CF, Nichols WD, Young CA. Reciprocal teaching for reading comprehension in higher education: A strategy for fostering the deeper understanding of texts. Int J Teach Learn High Educ 2006;17(2):106–18.

Towle A, Cottrell D. Self-directed learning. Arch Dis Child 1996;74(4):357–9.

Rosenshine B, Meister C. Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Rev Educ Res 1994;64(4):479–530.

Yang Y-F. Developing a reciprocal teaching/learning system for college remedial reading instruction. Comput Educ 2010;55(3):1193–201.

Van den Bos KP, Nakken H, Nicolay PG, Van Houten EJ. Adults with mild intellectual disabilities: can their reading comprehension ability be improved? J Intellect Disabil Res 2007;51(Pt 11):835–49.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>