COMPARISON OF NASAL PROFILES IN VARIOUS SKELETAL PATTERNS
AbstractBackground: The aim of this study was to determine any significant difference in nasal profiles amongst subjects in sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns in a sample Pakistani population, and to determine gender dimorphism if any. Material: The sample was divided into three sagittal and groups, namely skeletal Class I, II, and III, and three vertical groups, namely, normo-divergent, hypo-divergent and hyper-divergent vertical skeletal patterns. On way ANOVA was used to find any difference in nasal profiles amongst vertical and sagittal skeletal patterns, and to assess gender dimorphism, respectively. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between Skeletal Class I, II and III for naso-labial angle, naso-mental angle and soft tissue facial convexity. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were also obtained between males and females for nasal length, nasal depth, columella convexity and nasal bone length. Statistically significant differences were observed for nasal depth 2 and naso-labial angle in the vertical groups. Conclusions: Skeletal Class I, II, and III subjects have different nasal profiles. Nasal profiles are significantly different for males and females; hence it should be taken into consideration while planning ideal treatment for patients. Different vertical patterns are also associated with different nasal forms. It is recommended that further research be done to establish norms in our population for nasal profile.Keywords: Nasal profile, Vertical skeletal pattern, Sagittal skeletal pattern
Proffit W, White RP, Sarvar DM. Psychosocial aspects of dentofacial deformity and its treatment. In: Contemporary treatment of Dentofacial Deformity. St. Louis Missouri: Mosby; 2003. p.70–3.
Graber TM, Vanarsdall RL, Vig KWL. Special considerations in diagnosis and treatment planning. In: Orthodontics current principles and techniques. 4th ed. St Louis, Missouri: Elsevier; 2005.p. 24.
Proffit W, Fields HW, Sarver DM. Orthodontic diagnosis: The development of a problem list. In: Contemporary Orthodontics. 4th ed. St Louis, Missouri: Mosby; 2007. p.171.
Enlow DH, Hans MG. (Eds). Essentials of facial growth. Philadelphia: WB Saunders;1990.
Sarver DM, Rousso DR. Surgical procedures to improve esthetics when orthognathic surgery is not an option. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;126:299–301.
Gruber RP, Peck GC. (Eds). Rhinoplasty: state of the art. St Louis: Mosby:1993.
Farkas LG, Kolar JC, Munro IR. Geography of the nose: a morphometric study. Aesthetic Plast Surg 1986:10:191–223.
Athanasious AE. Anatomy, radiographic anatomy and cephalometric landmarks. In: Orthodontic Cephalometry. London: Mosby- Wolfe; 1995. p.49
Jacobson A, Vlachos C. Soft tissue evaluation. In: Jacobson A, Jacobson RL. Radiographic Cephalometry: from basic to 3D imaging. 2nd ed. Chicago: Quint Publishing Co Inc;2006.
Gulsen A, Okay C, Aslan BI, Uner O, Yavuzer R. The relationship between craniofacial structures and the nose in Anatolian Turkish adults: A cephalometric evaluation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;130:131.e15–25.
Genecov JS, Sinclair PM, Dechow PC. Development of the nose and soft tissue profile. Angle Orthod 1990;60:191–8.
Robison JM, Rinchuse DJ, Zullo TG. Relationship of skeletal pattern and nasal form. Am J Orthod 1986;89:499–506.
Hwang HS, Kim WS, McNamara JA. Ethnic differences in Soft Tissue Profile of Korean and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well balanced faces. Angle Orthod 2002;72:72–80.
Anic MS, Mestrovic S, Lapter VM, Dumancic J, Slaj M. Analysis of soft tissue profile in Croatians with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. Eur J Orthod 2010;5:124–8.
Scavone H Jr, Trevisan H Jr, Gari DG, Ferreira FV. Facial profile evaluation in Japanese- Brazilian adults with normal occlusions and well balanced faces. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006;129:721.e1–5.
Fernandez RP, Smyth CE, Suarez QD, Suarez CM. Angular photogrammametric analysis of soft tissue profile. Eur J Orthod 2003;25:393–9.
Marsan G, Cura N, Emekli U. Soft and hard tissue changes after bimaxillary surgery in Turkish female Class III patients. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2009;37:8–17.