• Muhammad Riaz Ahmad
  • Muhammad Khalid Pervaiz
  • Javed Akhtar Chawala


Background: Urinary Bladder cancer is a life threatening and aggressive disease. Thisretrospective study was conducted in Baluchistan for assessing the risk factors for urinary bladdercancer. Method: A questionnaire was developed in order to collect the requisite information aboutthe characteristics like age, drinking habits, smoking history, family history of cancer and othersfactors. Interview method was used to obtain the information from 50 cases and 100 controls fromtwo hospitals of the province. Binary logistic regression model was run to study the odds ratiosand 95% confidence intervals. Results: The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarettesmoking, fluid consumption and higher use of fruits were [26.064; 7.645–88.856], [0.161; 0.059–0.441], and [0.206; 0.059–0.725] respectively. Conclusions: The higher risk of urinary bladdercancer was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Higher consumption of fluid andfruits are protective factors against the disease.Keywords: Risk factors, Controls, Odds ratio, Questionnaire, Bladder Cancer


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