PHAGOCYTE FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN SUBJECTS LIVING IN HIGH LEVEL OF NATURAL RADIATION AREAS IN IRAN
AbstractBackground: Iran is considered as one of the countries which are located in high radiation area.Ramssar contains natural radioactive sources (Uranium-238) that can produce Radium-226 with highsolubility and Radon gas with ability to fuse in dirt, soil, and water in its decay chain. Radioactive rayscan produce free radicals with a short life time but high energy, which lead to changes structures ofprotein bindings, hormones activity, lipids oxidation and DNA breakage which can induce autoimmunediseases and other disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of natural radiation on innateand humoral immune response of those exposed to natural radioactive rays compared to control group.Methods: Subjects from high and low natural radiation areas were included in the study. Neutrophilchemotaxis, Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), and antioxidant effects were evaluated for effects ofradioactivity on free radicals and innate immunity. Also Cytokines (IL-2, IL-4) levels for humoralimmune system of the subjects were measured. Results: Total plasma antioxidant level and potency ofrespiratory burst in individuals who lived in area with high levels of natural radiation decreasedsignificantly compared with, control subjects who lived in the other areas of Ramssar with normalradiation. The level of IL-4 increased in individuals who lived in area with high levels of naturalradiation, which could lead to Th2 pattern of immune response whether neutrophils chemotaxis in thegroups living in the area with high level of natural radiation didn’t change significantly when comparedto control. Conclusion: Neutrophil respiratory burst activities suggested that NADPH probably reduceddue to different reasons including decrease in NADPH oxidase and other enzymes, and mutation of thegenes or production of oxidant substances. Neutrophil chemotaxis reduced but this reduction was notstatistically significant.Keywords: Radiation, Antioxidant, IL-2, IL-4, chemotaxis, NBT, free radicals
Mesbah AS. Ionization Radiation and its Hygienic importance.
Iran: University of Tehran; 1997. [in Persian]
Ghiasi MA. Survey on presence of Radium 237, in surface water
of Iran. Atomic Energy Organization of Iran; 2001.
Ghiassi-Nejad M, Zakeri F, Assaei RG, Kariminia A. Long term
immune and cytogenetic effects of high level natural radiation on
Ramsar inhabitants in Iran. J Environ Radioact 2004;74(1–
Ghiassi-Nejad M, Beitollahi MM, Asefi M, Reza-Nejad F.
Exposure to 226 Ra from consumption of vegetables in the high
level natural radiation area of Ramsar-Iran. J Environ Radioact
Wilkins RC, Wilkinson D, Maharaj HP, Bellier PV, Cybulski
MB, McLean JR. Differential apoptotic response to ionizing
radiation in sub population of human white blood cells. Mutat
Liu SZ, Liu WH, Sun JB. Radiation hormesis: its expression in
the immune system. Health Phys 1987;52:579–83.
Ardestani SK, Amani M, Kariminia A. Restorative Effect of
Vitamin E on some Immunological Parameters of Sub-Lethal γ-
Irradiated BALB/c Mice. Iran Biomed J 2000;4(1):51–5.
Latifynia A, Vojgani M, Gharagozlou MJ, Sharifian R.
Neutrophil function (innate immunity) during Ramadan. J Ayub
Med Coll Abbottabad 2009;21(4):111–5.
Mitsunobu F, Yamaoka K, Hanamoto K, Kojima S, Hosaki Y,
Ashida K, et al. Elevation of Antioxidant Enzymes in the clinical
Effects of Radon and Thermal therapy for Bronchial Asthma. J
Radiat Res 2003;44(2):95–9.
Noorizadeh M, Hadjati J, Khabiri A, Vodjgani M, KhademShariat H. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on proliferation and IL-5
production of peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Iran Biomed J
Schaue D, Marples B, Trott KR. The effects of low-dose Xirradiation on the oxidative burst in stimulated macrophages. Int J
Radiat Biol 2002;78(7):567–76.