SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF VIVAX AND FALCIPARUM MALARIA: AN OBSERVATION AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
AbstractBackground: Malaria is a major public health problem in the malaria endemic zones of the world.Various factors influence the prevalence of malaria. This study was conducted to determine thevariation in frequency of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in differentseasons of the year in Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Methods: A total of 411 patientswere included in the study. All these febrile patients were reported to have trophozoites of eitherPlasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum malaria on Giemsa stained thick and thin smears.The frequency of vivax and falciparum malaria was worked out and statistically analysed fordifferent season of the year. The study was carried out from 2nd Jan 2004 till 31st December 2008.Results: Out of total 411 diagnosed malaria cases, total 134 (32.60%) presented in the autumnseason (vivax=33.58%, and falciparum=66.42%), 37 (9%) in winter season (vivax=32.4%, andfalciparum=67.6%), 76 (18.49%) in spring season (vivax=93.4% and falciparum 6.6%) and 164(39.90%) in summer season (vivax=89.6, and falciparum=10.4%). The malaria showed a highlysignificant pattern in different seasons of the year (p=0.00) in a way that Plasmodium falciparummalaria reached its highest frequency in autumn and winter seasons while Plasmodium vivaxmalaria reached its peak frequency in spring and summer seasons. Conclusion: There was highlysignificant seasonal variation of vivax and falciparum malaria. There is arrival of Plasmodiumfalciparum in autumn which peaks in winter followed by arrival of Plasmodium vivax in spring tillthe end of summer.Keywords: Malaria, Falciparum, Vivax, Peshawar
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