• Aiesha Ishaque
  • Farah Ahmad
  • Nosheen Zehra
  • Huma Amin


Background: Obesity is considered as a global epidemic. Obesity in childhood and adolescent is anissue of concern because it is an important predictor of adult obesity. Identifying individuals whoare physically inactive, overweight or obese in school going age is very important. The objective ofthis study was to determine the frequency and factors leading to obesity in school children.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on children aged 13–16 years. It was aquestionnaire based survey with measurement of height and weight. Results: Total 431 childrenwere included in the study. Three hundred and nine (71.7%) of the students were in the normalcategory, i.e., less than 85th centile while 122 (28.3%) had weight greater than 85th centile and wereoverweight and obese. Positive association was found between eating out and weight categories,eating breakfast, intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and soft drinks, low physical activity, andincreased screen time. Frequency of overweight and obese children was high in children fromhigher socioeconomic status. Conclusion: There is strong association between strong determinantsof obesity and overweight. Health education of students for known risk factors should be integratedwith curriculum of science from elementary classes.Keywords: Obesity, Children, Determinants of obesity


Obesity - A Global Epidemic. [Online] 2005 [Cited 2008 Jun

. Available at:


Rehman T, Rizvi Z, Siddiqui U, Ahmad S, Sophie A, Siddiqu

Mi, et al. Obesity in adolescents of Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc


Martorell R. Obesity. 2020 Focus 5 (Health and Nutrition

Emerging and Reemerging Issues in Developing

Countries).[online] [cited 2008 Aug 1]. Available at:

Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S, Summerbell CD. Childhood

predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat

Metab Disord1999;23(Suppl 8):S1–S107.

Measurement and Determinants of Childhood Obesity: An

INCLEN-McMaster Collaborative Program in 30 Countries.

[Online] [Cited 2008 Jun 12]. Available at:


Jafar TH, Qadri Z, Islam M, Hatcher J, Bhutta ZA, Chaturvedi

N. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of

under-nutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children.

Arch Dis Child 2008;93:373–8.

James PT. Obesity: the worldwide epidemic. Clinics in

Dermatology 2004;22:276–80.

American public health association. What we know about

childhood obesity. URL:

resources/obesity/proresobesityknow.htm [Cited 2008 Aug 31].

Ariza AJ, Chen EH, Binns HJ, Christoffel KK. Risk factors for

overweight in five- to six-year-old Hispanic-American children:

a pilot study. J Urban Health 2004;81:150–61.

Pereira MA, Kartashov AI, Ebbeling CB, Van Horn L, Slattery

ML, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Fast-food habits, weight gain, and

insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective

analysis. Lancet 2005;365:36–42.

Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England.

[Online] 2009 [Cited 2010 Feb 24]. Available at:

Barlow SE, Expert committee recommendations regarding the

prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent

overweight and obesity: Summary Report. Pediatrics


Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) Core

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2012;24(2)

Expanded Questions [Online] Cited 2008 Jun 12]. Available at:

WHO. Growth reference 5–19 years. [Online] [Cited 2008 Jun

. Available at:


Warraich HJ, Javed F, Faraz-ul-Haq M, Khawaja FB, Saleem S.

Prevalence of Obesity in School-Going Children of Karachi. PLoS

ONE 2009;4:e4816.

Kosti RI, Panagiotakos DB. The epidemic of obesity in children

and adolescents in the world. Cent Eur J Public Health


Goyal RK, Shah VN, Saboo BD, Phatak SR, Shah NN, Gohel

MC et al. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Indian

Adolescent School Going Children: Its relationship with

Socioeconomic Status and Associated Lifestyle Factors. J Assoc

Physicians India 2010;58:151–8.

Croezen S, Visscher TLS, ter Bogt NCW , Veling ML, HavemanNies A. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical

inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents:

results of the E-MOVO project. Eur J Clin Nutrition 2009;63:405–

Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown JP, Clark CA, Block G. The Effect of

Breakfast Type on Total Daily energy Intake and Body Mass

Index: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition

Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Coll Nutr


Ashlesha D, Nancy N. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood

Obesity Much Ado About Nothing? RAND Health and labour

population, 2009. available at:


Field AE, Austin SB, Gillman MW, Rosner B, Rockett HR,

Colditz GA. Snack food intake does not predict weight change

among children and adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.


Field AE, Gillman MW, Rosner B, Rockett HR, Colditz GA.

Association between fruit and vegetable intake and change in

body Mass index among a large sample of children and

adolescents in the United States. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.


Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between

consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity:

a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001;357:505–8.

Steffen LM, Dai S, Fulton JE, Labarthe DR. Overweight in

Children and Adolescents Associated with TV Viewing and

Parental Weight: Project Heart Beat. Am J Prev Med 2009;37(1


Tremblay S, Williams JD. Is the Canadian childhood obesity

epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obesity 2003;




Most read articles by the same author(s)