• Shahid Mahmood
  • Ghazia Qasmi
  • Ashfaq Ahmed
  • Farkhanda Kokab
  • Mohammad Farhan Zahid
  • Mohammad Imtiaz Afridi
  • Anjum Razzaq


Background: Age-adjusted incidence of prostate cancer in Pakistan is 5.3 per 100,000 which isrelatively low compared to other Asian countries, but increasing numbers of cases are being reported.Data on risk factors associated with prostate cancer risk among Pakistani men are sparse. Theobjective of this study was to identify lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer inPakistani men. Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Lahore from Februaryto October 2011. The study enrolled 195 histologically confirmed cases of adenocarcinoma ofprostate from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Hospital and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and OncologyLahore (INMOL) and Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, using purposive sampling technique. Atotal of 390 hospital controls were selected using convenient sampling technique from differentteaching hospitals of Lahore after screening with prostate specific antigen levels. A semi-structuredinterview form was used to collect data through face-to-face interviews. Odds ratio was used as ameasure of strength of association and was calculated using unconditional logistic regression.Results: Farmers were found to be at higher odds of prostate cancer (OR=19.76, 95% CI=5.51–70.80, p<0.001). No significant association was found with marital status, ethnic background,religious affiliation and consanguineous marriages. Level of physical activity was inverselyassociated with prostate cancer risk (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.01–0.26, p<0.001). Positive associationwas found with increased red meat consumption (OR=11.82, 95% CI=2.88–48.54, p=0.001) anddairy products intake (OR=11.76, 95% CI=4.23–32.67, p<0.001). Conclusion: Red meatconsumption, higher dairy products intake and working as farmers are strongly associated withincreased odds of prostate cancer among Pakistani men.Keywords: Prostate, Lifestyle, Risk, Red meat, Dairy product, Farmer, Cancer


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