• Ahsan Rasool
  • Shehraz Ahmad
  • Umer Farooq
  • Maleeha Rasool
  • Zahika Shah
  • Muhammad Hammad
  • Ashfaq Utmanzai
  • Fazli Wahab
  • Irum Sadique
  • Jawad Ahmad


Background: The hazards of cigarette smoking and its increasing consumption are well knowndespite the ongoing tussle between the tobacco industry and global governments. To curb the menaceof smoking, anti-smoking laws have been enforced from time to time by various governments. In2003, Ministry of Health (MoH) Government of Pakistan has imposed certain regulations oncigarette manufacturing industry. The aim of this study was to highlight the compliance of theindustry with these regulations. Methods: A cross-sectional study of major cigarette selling shopswas conducted in Abbottabad. It was aimed at determining the availability of total cigarette brandsand their compliance with the regulations and also to find out attributes of cigarette customers.Results: A total of 39 varieties of 18 cigarette brands are available in Abbottabad city, out of which71.8% are imported varieties. A total of 38.4% varieties have displayed health warnings (28.2%pictorial health warning, 10.2% have written health warning. Majority of cigarette customers arebetween 20–40 years of age, while 5.6% customers include youngsters between 10–20 years of age.Female customers, accounting for 8% of total cigarette customers, buy only those brands which havenot displayed the health warning. Conclusions: Observed compliance with governmental regulationfor displaying health warning is 39% which is far less than desired. Sale of cigarette to children isalso practiced. Ministry of Health (MoH) should assure the display of these warnings on all thebrands so that smokers must be fully aware about the risk involved in smokingKeywords: Cigarette smoking; anti-smoking regulations; protection of non-smoker health.


th Report on Carcinogens by the U.S. Department of Health

and Human Services. Available at:


Biesalski HK, Bueno de Mesquita B, Chesson A, Chytil

F, Grimble R, Hermus RJ. European Consensus Statement on

Lung Cancer: risk factors and prevention. Lung Cancer

Panel. CA Cancer J Clin 1998;48(3):167–76.

Ko YC, Huang YL, Lee CH, Chen MJ, Lin LM, Tsai CC. Betel

quid chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related

to oral cancer in Taiwan. J Oral Pathol Med 1995;24:450–3.

Zatonski W, Becher H, Lissowska J, Wahrendorf J. Tobacco,

alcohol, and diet in the etiology of laryngeal cancer: a

population-based case-control study. Cancer Causes and

Control 1991;2(1):3–10.

McLaughlin JK, Hrubec Z, Heineman EF, Blot WJ, Fraumeni JF

Jr. Renal cancer and cigarette smoking in a 26-year followup of

US veterans. Public Health Rep 1990;105:535–7.

Castellsagué X, Muñoz N, De Stefani E, Victora CG, Castelletto

R, Rolón PA, et al. Independent and joint effects of tobacco

smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in

men and women. Int J Cancer 1999;82:657–64.

Morrison AS, Buring JE, Verhoek WG, Aoki K, Leck I, Ohno

Y, et al. An international study of smoking and bladder cancer. J

Urol 1984:131:650–4.

Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J. Mortality from smoking in

developed countries 1950–2000: Indirect estimates from National

Vital Statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.

Pakistan Health Education Survey 1991. Islamabad: Ministry of

Health, Government of Pakistan; 1991.

Ordinance No. LXXIV of 2002: Prohibition of smoking and

protection of non-smokers health ordinance 2002.

Nasir K, Rehan N. Epidemiology of cigarette smoking in

Pakistan. Addiction 2001;96:1847–54.

Nawaz, H, Imam SZ, Zubairi, ABS, Pabaney AH, Sepah

YJ, Islam M, Khan JA. Smoking habits and beliefs of future

physicians of Pakistan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007;11:915–9.

Alam SE. Prevalence and pattern of smoking in Pakistan. J Pak

Med Assoc 1998 Mar;48(3):64–6.

The Railways Act, 1890 (ACT IX OF 1890).

Juvenile Smoking Act 1918, Bahawalpur State. (ACT VII OF

West Pakistan Juvenile Smoking Ordinance (ACT XII of 1959)

Cigarettes (Printing of Warning) Ordinance. 1979 (LXXIII) of



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>