EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID ON FATIGUE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBRES IN LONG TERM COLD EXPOSED SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS
AbstractBackground: On exposure to prolonged cold temperature, the body responds for effective heatproduction both by shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. Cold exposure increases the productionof reactive oxygen species which influence the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ release from the skeletalmuscles and affect their contractile properties. The role of ascorbic acid supplementation on force ofcontraction during fatigue of cold exposed skeletal muscles was evaluated in this study. Method:Ninety healthy, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of control (I), coldexposed (II), and cold exposed with ascorbic acid 500 mg/L supplementation mixed in drinking water(III). Group II and III were given cold exposure by keeping their cages in ice-filled tubs for 1 hr/day forone month. After one month, the extensor digitorum longus muscle was dissected out and force ofcontraction during fatigue in the skeletal muscle fibres was analysed on a computerised data acquisitionsystem. Results: The cold exposed group showed a significant delay in the force of contraction duringfatigue of skeletal muscle fibres compared to control group. Group III showed easy fatigability and abetter force of contraction than the cold exposed group. Conclusions: Ascorbic acid increases the forceof contraction and decreases resistance to fatigue in the muscles exposed to chronic cold.Keywords: Ascorbic acid, cold stress, fatigue, skeletal muscles
Buffenstein R, Woodley R, Thomadakis C, Daly TJM, Gray DA.
Cold-induced changes in thyroid function in a poikilothermic
mammal, the naked mole-rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp
Petrovic V, Buzadzic B, Korac A, Vasilijevic A, Jankovic A,
Micunovic K, et al. Antioxidative defence alterations in skeletal
muscle during prolonged acclimation to cold: role of L-arginine/
NO producing pathway. J Exp Biol 2008;211:114–20.
Silva JE. Thermogenic mechanisms and their hormonal
regulation, Physiol Rev 2006;86:435–64.
Barbara AB, O'Brien J, Meissner G. Characterization of the
sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins in the thermogenic muscles of
fish. J Cell Biol 1994;127:1275–87.
Werner J. Process- and controller-adaptations determine the
physiological effects of cold acclimation. Eur J Appl Physiol
Arruda AP, Ketzer LA, Nigro M, Galina A, Carvalho DP,
deMeis L. Cold tolerance in hypothyroid rabbits: Role of skeletal
muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca+2 ATPase
isoform 1 heat production. Endocrinology 2008;149:6262–71.
de Meis L, Arruda AP, Carvalho DP. Role of sarco/endoplasmic
reticulum (Ca2+) ATPase in thermogenesis. Biosci Rep
Aydin J, Shabalina IG, Place N, Reiken S, Zhang SJ, Bellinger
AM, et al. Nonshivering thermogenesis protects against defective
calcium handling in muscle. FASEB J 2008;22:3919–24.
Ivanova E. Mechanisms of the extracellular antioxidant defend.
Exp Pathol Parasitol 2000;4:49–59.
Lee JA, Westerblad H, Allen DG. Changes in tetanic and resting
[Ca2+]i during fatigue and recovery of single mouse muscle
fibres from Xenopus laevis. J Physiol 1991;433:307–26.
Ibrahim MY, Ashour OM. Changes in nitric oxide and free
radical levels in rat gastrocnemius muscle during contraction and
fatigue. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2011;38:791–5.
Favero, TG. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and muscle
fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:471–83.
Finad J, lac G, Filaire E. Oxidative stress: relationship with
exercise and training. Sports Med 2006;36:327–58.
Ferreira LF, Reid MB. Muscle-derived ROS and thiol regulation
in muscle fatigue. J Appl Physiol 2008;104:853–60.
Surai PF. Natural antioxidants in poultry nutrition: new
developments, at 16th Europeon symposium on poultry
Donpunha W, Kukongviriyapan U, Sompamit K, Pakdeechote P,
Kukongviriyapan V, Pannangpetch P. Protective effect of
ascorbic acid on cadmium-induced hypertension and vascular
dysfunction in mice. Biometals 2011;24:105–15.
Kearns SR, Daly AF, Sheehan K, Murray P, Kelly C, Hayes BD.
Oral vitamin C reduces the injury to skeletal muscle caused by
compartment syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg 2004;86:906–11.
Iqbal K, Khan A, Khattak MMAK. Biological significance of
ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in human health –A Review. Pak J Nutr
Nomura T, Kawano F, Kang MS, Lee JH, Han EY, Kim CK, et
al. Effects of long term cold exposure on contractile properties in
slow- and fast-twitch muscles of rats. Jap J Physiol 2002;52:85–
Hsu PC, Liu MY, Hsu CC, Chen LY, Guo YL. Effect of vitamin
E and/or C on reactive oxygen species-related lead toxicity in the
rat sperm. Toxicology 1998:128;169–79.
Shindoh CA, Dimarco A, Manubay P, Supinski JS. Effect of Nacetylcysteine on diaphragm fatigue. J Appl Physiol
Clanton TL, Zuo L, Klawitter P. Oxidants and skeletal muscle
function: physiologic and pathophysiologic implications. Proc
Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;222:253–62.
van der Heijden EP, Kroese AB, Werker PM, de With MC, de
Smet M, Kon M, et al. Improving the preservation of isolated rat
skeletal muscles stored for 16 hours at 4 degree C.
Brutonn JD, Place N, Yamada T, Silva JP, Andrade FH,
Dahlstedt AJ, et al. Reactive oxygen species and fatigue- induced
prolonged low-frequency force depression in skeletal muscle
fibres of rats, mice and SOD2 over-expressing mice. J Physiol
McKenna MJ, Medved I, Goodman CA, Brown MJ, Bjorksten
AR, Murphy KT, et al. N-acetylcysteine attenuates the decline in
muscle Na+K+ pump activity and delays fatigue during prolonged
exercise in humans. J Physiol 2006;576:279–88.