• Shafiq Rahman
  • Shahina Mumtaz
  • Ahmad Jawad Mufti
  • Syed Hassan Shah
  • Malala Rahman


Background: There is considerable variation in the percentage of isolates of methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are several mechanisms for methicillin resistance. The mostimportant is low affinity of penicillin binding proteins for β-lactam antibiotics. The objectives of thisstudy were to establish the pattern of MRSA incidence in Peshawar in recent years, and to identify highrisk groups for acquiring infection amongst the city population. Method: All positive MRSA casesreported at city laboratory were employed in the study. These were recorded over the time periodelapsing from 2009 to 2011. For each patient, records were looked at for age, sex, specimen testedpositive, hospital/community acquired and if hospital acquired then which particular hospital within thecity was infection contracted at. Also patient records were addressed for any immune systemabnormalities, any operation conducted, presence or absence of diabetes and any history of intravenousdrug use. Results: There were a total of 929 MRSA cases in our study, of which 538 were males and391 were females. MRSA frequency for the year 2009 was 207, for 2010 it was 284 and for 2011 it was438. The frequency of MRSA increased by 54% from the year 2009 to 2011. Conclusion: Apotentially alarming increase in MRSA incidence within the city has been observed in recent yearsthreatening to rise further judging the current trend. Those at a high risk of contracting infection includemales aged between 20–29 years, hospitalised, diabetics, immune system compromised, andindividuals with a history of IV drug use.Keywords: MRSA, Incidence, Prevention


Aasma N. Ajmal, Farzana Mir, Maleeha Aslam, Rubeena

Hafeez, Rubina Attique. Nosocomial methacillin-resistant

staphylococcus aureus frequency in a tertiary care hospital,

Lahore, Pakistan, Biomedica 2009; 25:97–100.

Fitzroy A Orrett, Michael Land. methicillin resistant

Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: current susceptibility patterns

in Trinidad. BMC Infectious Diseases 2006;6:83. Doi:

1186/1471-2334-6-83. URL:


Crawford SE, David MZ, Glikman D, King KJ, Boyle-Vavra

S, Daum RS. Clinical importance of purulence in methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections. J

Am Board Fam Med 2009;22(6):647–54.

Fankhauser CM, Schrenzel J, Pittet D, Harbarth S. Epidemiology

of MRSA at the University of Geneva Hospitals. BMC

Proceedings 2011;5(Suppl 6):5.

Statistical bulletin, deaths involving MRSA 2009. Office for

National Statistics UK. URL:

Laxminarayan Ramanan, Malani Anup. Resources for the Future,

Extending the Cure: Policy Responses to the Growing Threat of

Antibiotic Resistance March 22, 2007. Available at:

Ekrami A, Samarbafzadeh AR, Alavi M, Kalantar E, Hamzeloi

F. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species

isolated from burn patients in a burn center, Ahvaz, Iran.

Jundishapur J Microbiology 2010;3(2):84–91.

Crowcroft NS. Mortality from methicillin resistant

Staphylococcus aureus in England and Wales: analysis of death

certificates. BMJ 2002;325:1390.