• Rana Ataur Rehman Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore
  • Shahzad Ashraf Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore
  • Jamshed Rahim Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore
  • Nadir Hussain Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore
  • Muhammad Nasir Jamil Department of Urology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
  • Muhammad Muzammil Tahir Department of Urology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore


Background: Most common malignant tumour of the kidney is Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and is known for its unpredictable clinical behaviour. Aetiology and risk factors are not completely understood. Extensive workup is being done in the understanding of the disease, especially to diagnose early and to treat promptly. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and pathological pattern of RCC. Methods: After approval from ethical committee a retrospective review of records was conducted extending from January 2012 to January 2014 to identify clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinomas. The study included all renal cancer patients presented to Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore with in this specified period. The data was retrieved regarding, history, physical examination and necessary investigations such as ultrasonsgraphy of abdomen and pelvis and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. Results: There were total of 50 cases. The male to female ratio was 3:2. Mean age of patients were 52.38 (18–93) years old. Most common clinical presentation was gross haematuria(66%).The mean tumour size was 8.34 (3–24) cm. Tumour histology were clear cell (84%), papillary transitional cell carcinoma (12%) and oncosytoma contributed 4%. Conclusion: We observed that large number of the patients with RCC presented with haematuria and most of them were male. Common pathological type was clear cell carcinoma.Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma, Clinical presentation, Gross haematuria


Chow WH, Dong LM, Devesa SS. Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer. Nat Rev Urol 2010; 7(5):245–57.

Mandel JS, McLaughlin JK, Schlehofer B, Mellemgaard A, Helmert U, Lindblad P, et al. International renal-cell cancer study. IV. Occupation. Int J Cancer 1995; 61(5):601–5.

Wolk A, Gridley G, Niwa S, Lindblad P, McCredie M, Mellemgaard A, et al. International renal cell cancer study. VII. Role of diet. Int J Cancer 1996; 65(1):67–73.

Maclure M. Asbestos and renal adenocarcinoma: a case-control study. Environ Res 1987;42(2):353–61.

McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, Mehl ES, Stewart PA, Venable FS, Fraumeni JF Jr. Petroleumrelated employment and renal cell cancer. J Occup Med 1985;27(9):672–4.

Kolonel LN. Association of cadmium with renal cancer. Cancer 1976;37(4):1782–7.

Brauch H, Weirich G, Hornauer MA, Storkel S, Wohl T, Brüning T. Trichloroethylene exposure and specific somatic mutations in patients with renal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(10):854–61.

Tijani KH, Annobi C C, Ezenwa EV, Lawal A, Habeebu MYM, Jeje EA, et al. "Adult renal cell carcinoma in Lagos: Experience and challenges at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital." Afr J Urol 2012;18:20–3.

Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Novick AC, Peters CA. Malignant renal tumour. In: McDougal WS, Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, Editors. Campbell-Walsh Urology Tenth Edition Review Philadelphia Elsevier/Saunders; 2011; p 1419–38.

Badrinath R, Konety MD, Richard D, Willams MD. Renal Parenchymal Neoplasms. In: Tanagho EA, Jack W. McAninch S, Editors. Smith’s General Urology. 17th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies 2008; p 328–35.

Seow A, Koh WP, Chia KS, Shi LM, Lee HP, Shanmugaratnam K. Trends in Cancer Incidence in Singapore, 1968-2002. Singapore: Singapore Cancer Registry, 2004.

Sidharth, Luitel BR, Gupta DK, Maskey P, Chalise PR, Sharma UK, et al. Pattern of Renal Cell Carcinoma – A Single Center Experience in Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;9(35):185–8.

M.M. Marberger, L. B., C.R. Chapple. "Renal Cell Carcinoma." Official Journal of the European Association of Urology (2003) 4(1): 189–194

Woldrich JM, Mallin K, Ritchey J, Carroll PR, Kane CJ. Sex differences in renal cell cancer presentation and survival: An analysis of the National Cancer Database, 1993–2004. J Urol 2008;179(5):1709–13.

Raj GV, Thompson RH, Leibovich BC, Blute ML, Russo P, Kattan MW. Preoperative nomogram predicting 12-year probability of metastatic renal cancer. J Urol 2008;179(6):2146–51.

Badmus TA, Salako AA, Arogundade FA, Sanusi AA, Adesunkanmi AR, Oyebamiji EO, et al. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults: A Ten Year Review in Nigerian Hospital. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2008;19(1):120–6.

Teloken PE, Thompson RH, Tickoo SK, Cronin A, Savage C, Reuter VE, et al. Prognostic impact of histological subtype on surgically treated localized renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 2009;182(5):2132–6.