• Taj Muhammad
  • Asmat Ara Khattak
  • Shafiq -ur- Rehman
  • Muhammad Amjad Khan
  • Afzal Khan
  • Muhammad Aqeel Khan


Background: Intrauterine growth restriction is a major neonatal health issue. Maternal factors havebeen found to have greater impact on IUGR. Studying these factors can help in reducing the mortalityand morbidity associated with IUGR. Methods: This Case-control study was conducted at thedepartment of Paediatrics Post-graduate medical institute Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from March2008-April 2009. Small-for-gestational age (SGA, i.e., IUGR cases and n=200) live born babies werecompared with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, i.e., controls and n=200) babies. Informationregarding socio-demographics of mothers, gestational age and birth weight of baby, maternal clinicalcharacteristics, and medical and obstetric complications during pregnancy was recorded on a predesigned proforma. Data analysis was done through SPSS-16. To find the maternal factors associatedwith the intrauterine growth restriction, multivariable logistic regression was used. We also did twodifferent sets of logistic regression analysis for Symmetric and Asymmetric SGA babies as Cases.Results: After adjusting for other variables in the multivariable model we found that the mothers ofIUGR babies were of younger age (OR=0.8, CI=0.7–0.9), were poor (OR=2.5, CI=1.4–4.4) andunderweight (OR=3.5, CI=1.1–5.7) and had anaemia (OR=2.7, CI=1.3–5.4) in the index pregnancy,and had history of Previous IUGR birth (OR=9.7, CI=3.3–18.3) and placenta previa (OR=3.2, CI=1.1–6.6). There was an interaction between pregnancy induced hypertension and parity of mother with aprimary-para mother with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) having an increased risk for IUGRbabies (OR=10.1, CI=1.0–23.2). Conclusion:. The studied factors need special attention in hospitalbased settings in order to improve the perinatal outcome in IUGR babies.Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction, pregnancy induced hypertension, maternal malnutrition,anaemia


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