FREQUENCY OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PEOPLE OF PESHAWAR
AbstractBackground: Increased body weight is a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome which is a cluster of coronary heart disease risk factors, like: hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus in the population of Peshawar and association between them. Methods: This was a cross sectional study, performed by the Cardiology Department, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, in the population of Peshawar. All participants were interviewed in detail regarding known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Waist circumference (≥102 cm in male and ≥88 cm in females) was used as the surrogate marker for abdominal obesity in already diagnosed patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Results: A total of 2548 individuals were included, 71.1% were male. Mean age was 37.94±12.59 years. Mean waist circumference was 90.25±13.45cm in males and 90.52±12.52cm in females. Diabetes was present in 4.4% of the participants and abdominal obesity in 56.6% .Among the male, abdominal obesity was present in 39.4% and diabetes in 2.9%. Out of 39.4% males with abdominal obesity, 2% were diabetic. Out of 38.6% males with no abdominal obesity, 0.9% was diabetic. Amongst the total 559 (21.1%) female subjects, 17.2% were having abdominal obesity and 1.4% was diabetics. Among 123 (4.8%) females with no abdominal obesity, 0.1% was diabetic. A positive association was established between abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus with a significant p-valve (<0.05). Conclusion: Abdominal obesity is more common in the local population of Peshawar and associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Word Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva, 3-5 June 1997.
Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol, Education Programme ( NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adult (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285(19):2486−97.
Pasquet P, Temgoua LS, Melaman-Sago F, Froment A, Rikong-Adle H. Prevalence of overweight and obesity for urban adults in Cameroon. Ann Hum Biol 2003;30(5):551−62.
Amole IO, Olaolourun AD, Odeigah LO, Adesina SA. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fan Med 2011;3(1):5.
Zaher ZMM, Zambari R, Pheng CS, Muruga V, Ng B, Appannah G, et al. Optimal cut-off levels to define obesity: body mass index and waiste circumference and their relationship to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and dibetes in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2009;18(2):209−16.
Heydari ST, Khoshdel AR, Sabayan B, Abtahi F, Zamirian N, Sedaghat S. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Military Personnel in Southern Iran. Iran Cardiovasc Res J 2010;4(1):22−7.
Tariq M, Hadi A, Rahman S. Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Daibetics: an update on the silent epidemic. RMJ 2010;35(2):201−4.
Puepet FH, Zoakah AI, Chuhwak EK. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Nigeria adults in Jos. Highland Med Res J. 2002;1(1):13−6.
Puoane T, Fourie JM, Shapiro M, Rosling L, Tshaka NC, Oelefse A. ‘Big is beautiful’ – an exploration with urban black community health workers in a South African township. South African J Clin Nutr 2005;18(1):8−15.
Hanson RL, Imperatore G, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Components of the “metabolic syndrome” and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2002;51(10):3120−7.
Khan H, Hafizullah M, Ihtesham-ul-Haq. A hospital based study on frequency of risk factors of coronary artery disease in Peshawar. J Postgrad Med Inst 2005;19:270–5.
Khan SB, Rehman H, Noor L, Hameedullah, Hafizullah M, Gul AM et al. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Among Obese And Non-obese Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010;22(3):64−7.
Shera AS, Rafique G, Khwaja IA, Ara J, Baqai S, King H. Pakistan National Diabetes Survey: Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated factors in Shikarpur, Sindh Province. Diabetic Med 1995;12:1116−21.
Mohsin A, Zafar J, Nisar YB, Imran SM, Zaheer K, Khizar B, et al. Frequency of the metabolic syndrome in adult type2 diabetics presenting to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences. J Pak Med Assoc 2007;57:235−8.
Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorvusen TI. Childhood body mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Eng J Med 2007;357(23):2329−37.
Abbas S, Shazia A, Riaz A, Malik N. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J 2003;53:12–9.
Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldslien DE, Little RR, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in US adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 1988;21:518–24.