• Dilshad Ahmed Khan
  • Samia Fatima
  • Rabia Imran
  • Farooq Ahmad Khan


Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common clinical problem contributing to increased maternaland foetal morbidity. This study was carried out to determine frequency of iron, folate and cobalamindeficiency and associated risk factors in the anaemic pregnant females who reported first time duringsecond and third trimester for antenatal check-up in the tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Methods:This case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Rawalpindi. Two hundred and fiftypregnant women (age: 19–43 years) consisting of 125 anaemic (Hb< 110 g/L) and 125 non-anaemicwho reported first time at antenatal clinic were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics,parity and dietary intake were collected. Complete blood counts were done. Serum ferritin, folate andcobalamin assays were performed by using DPC kits on Immulite-1000. Results: The pregnant womenwere categorised having mild (Hb up to 54%), moderate (Hb up to 36%), or severe (Hb up to10%)anaemia during antennal visit. They had significantly lower median (range) levels of haemoglobin 96(40–110) g/L, ferritin 8 (3–142) µg/L, folate 15 (3–54) ηmol/L and cobalamin 171 (111–629) ρmolLthan controls (p=<0.01). Micronutrient analysis revealed secondary pregnancy related deficiency ofIron (57%), folate (20%), combined iron and folate (19%) and cobalamin (4%) in the female. Amongthe risk factors, low income (OR: 7.69), multiparty (OR: 2.93), lack of iron/folate supplementation (OR2.91) and inadequate dietary intakes (OR 2.51) were associated with anaemia. Conclusion: Thepregnant anaemic women had iron (57%); folate (20%), followed by combined iron folate (19%), andcobalamin (4%) deficiency during first antenatal visit. Low income, multiparty, poor diet and lack ofsupplements are the main contributor in development of anaemia during pregnancy.Keywords: Anaemia, pregnancy, ferritin, cobalamin, iron, folate


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