• M Hussain
  • R Malik
  • M Zaman
  • TF Babar
  • SM Elsherbiny
  • LP Lip


Background: The Carotid Artery Insufficiency Retinopathy (CAIR) is an uncommon sign of carotidartery obstruction. It is mainly found in patients with complete occlusion or severe obstruction ofInternal Carotid Artery (ICA). Retinopathy is caused by progressive and chronic hypoxia to oculartissues. The purpose of the study is to describe the variable presentation of CAIR in patients withinternal carotid artery stenosis and to asses the resolution of retinopathy in patients who had carotidendarterectomy. Methods: Records of the patients with confirmed internal carotid artery stenosiswere reviewed. Patients’ demographic data and way of presentation to ophthalmologist wasrecorded. Associated systemic vascular diseases were also recorded on the proforma. Records of thepatients with confirmed internal carotid artery stenosis were reviewed. Results: Thirteen eyes of 10patients were included in study with male to female ratio of 9:1. Patients’ clinical presentationranged from scattered blot haemorrhages to ocular ischemic syndrome. Patients presented withretinopathy at different stages. The presentation of retinopathy varied from scattered blothaemorrhages to ocular ischemic syndrome. Endarterectomy resolved CAIR in 2 out of 3 patients,with one patient having bilateral resolution. Conclusion: CAIR should be suspected if retinopathy isunilateral. On the other hand patients with asymptomatic Carotid artery stenosis should be examinedfor signs of ocular ischemia. All patients with CAIR should be investigated for cardiovasculardiseases. Endarterectomy in selected patients can resolve CAIR.Keywords: Carotid artery insufficiency retinopathy (CAIR), Internal carotid artery (ICA),Retinopathy


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