RISK FACTORS OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER IN PESHAWAR REGION OF KHYBER PUKHTOONKHAWA

Authors

  • Muhammad Riaz Ahmad
  • Muhammad Khalid Pervaiz

Abstract

Background: Urinary Bladder cancer is a fatal disease. No work about its risk factors has beenconducted in northern Pakistan. This case control study was conducted in order to investigatethe risk factors of the urinary bladder cancer in that area. Method: For this study 150 subjectsincluding 50 cases and 100 controls were interviewed from the 2 tertiary care hospitals ofPeshawar and the information was collected about the characteristics like gender, age, smokinghabits, family history of cancer, etc. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explainthe risk factors of the disease. Odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were computed byusing logistic regression model. Results: The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval forchemical exposure are 4.637 and (1.022–21.053), for cigarette smoking 19.526 and (4.688–81.329), for lifestyle 0.171 and (0.031–0.943), for fluid consumption 0.025 and (0.005–0.115),for fried items 5.934 and (1.429–24.648), and for fruits are 0.173 (0.045–0.660), respectively.Conclusions: Chemical exposure, cigarette smoking, and high use of fried items increase therisk of urinary bladder cancer. Moderate lifestyle, high fluid consumption and use of fruits areprotective against the disease.Keywords: Bladder cancer, Controls, Odds ratio, Questionnaire, Risk factors

References

Steward BW, Kleinhaus P. World Cancer Report: WHO-Lyon:

IARC Press;2003.

Lousbergh D, Broeders G, Cloes E, Dhollander D, Thijs G, Op de

Beeck A, et al. Incidence of cancer in the Belgian province of

Limburg 1996-2001. (LIKAS vzw, Ed.). Hasselt: Diepenbeek

Leuven; 2003.

Visser O, Coeberg J, Dijck van J, Siesling S. Incidence of cancer in

the Netherlands 1998. Utrecht: Association of comprehensive cancer

centres; 2002.

Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention.

New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press: 1996.

Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T, Montgomery S. Cancer Statistics.

Ca Cancer J Clin 1994;44(1):7–26.

Sylvester RJ, Oosterlinck W, Meijden AP. A single immediate

postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of

recurrence in patients with stage Ta, T1 bladder cancer: a metaanalysis of published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol.

;171:2186–90.

Pirastu R, Iavarone I, Comba P. Bladder cancer: a selected review of

the epidemiologic literature. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1996;32:3–20.

Burch JD, Rohan TE, Howe GR. Risk of bladder cancer by source

and type of tobacco exposure: A case control study. Int. J Cancer

;44:622–8.

Clavel J, Cordier S, Boccon GL, Hemon D. Tobacco and bladder

cancer in males: Increased risk of in halers and smokers of black

tobacco. Int J Cancer 1989;44:605–10.

Morrison AS. Advances in the etiology of urothelial cancer. Urol

Clin North Am 1984;11:557–66.

Augustine A, Herbert JR, Kabat GC, Wynder ER. Bladder cancer in

relation to cigarette smoking. Cancer Res 1988;38:4405–8.

Pelucchi C, Vecchia LC, Negri E, DalMaso L, Franceschi, S.

Smoking and other risk factors for bladder cancer in women. Prev

Med 2002;35:114–20.

Mommsen S, Aagaard J, Sell A. An epidemiological study of

bladder cancer in a predominantly rural district. Scand J Urol

Nephrol 1983;17:307–12.

Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, King WD, Jaakkola JJ, Cordier S,

Lynch CF, et al. Total and specific fluid consumption as

determinants of bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2006; 118:2040–7.

Zeegers MP, Kellen E, Buntinx F, van den Brandt PA. The

association between smoking, beverage consumption, diet and

bladder cancer: a systematic literature review. World J Urol

;2:392–401.

Bianchi GD, Cerhan JR, Parker AS, Putnam SD, See WA, Lynch

CF, et al. Tea consumption and risk of bladder and kidney cancers in

a population-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol

;151:377–83.

Zeegers MP, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Are

coffee, tea, and total fluid consumption associated with bladder

cancer risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer

Causes Control 2001;12:231–8.

Claus EB, Schildkraut JM, Thompson WE, Risch NJ. The genetic

attributable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer

;77:2318–24.

Riboli E, Gonzales CA, Lopez-Abente G, Errezola M, Izarzugaza I,

Escolar A, et al. Diet and bladder cancer in Spain: a multi-centre

case-control study. Int J Cancer 1991;49:214–9.

Hebert JR, Miller DR. A Cross-national Investigation of diet and

bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer 1994;30:778–84.

Bruemmer B, White E, Vaughan TL, Cheney CL. Nutrient intake in

relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women. Am

J Epidemiol 1996;144:485–95.

Radosavljevic´ V, Jankovic´ S, Marinkovic´ J, Dokic´ M. Diet and

bladder cancer: A case-control study. Int Urol Nephrol.

;37:283–9.

Negri E and Vecchia CL. Epidemiology and prevention of bladder

cancer. Euro J Cancer Prev 2001;10:7–14.

Hosmer DW and Lomeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. New

York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 1989.

Kogevinas M, Mannetje A, Cordier S, Ranft U, Gonzalez CA,

Vineis P, et al. Occupation and bladder cancer among men in

Western Europe. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14:907–14.

Kogevinas M, Garcia-Closas M, Trichopoulos D. Urinary bladder

cancer. In: A Text book of Cancer Epidemiology. Oxford University

Press; 2002.p.454.

Silverman DT, Morrison AS and Devesa SS. Bladder cancer. In:

Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and

Prevention, New York: Oxford University Press; 1996.p. 1156–79.

Brennan P, Bogillot O, Greiser E, Chang-Claude J, Wahrendorf J,

Cordier S, et al. The Contribution of Cigarette Smoking to Bladder

Cancer in Women (Pooled European Data) Source: Cancer Causes

Control. 2001;12:411–7.

Samanic C, Kogevinas M, Dosemeci M, , Malats N, Real FX,

Garcia-Closas M, et al. Smoking and bladder cancer in Spain: effects

of tobacco type, timing, environmental tobacco smoke, and gender.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:1348–54.

Downloads

Published

2010-03-01