• Muhammad Riaz Ahmad
  • Muhammad Khalid Pervaiz


Background: Urinary Bladder cancer is a fatal disease. No work about its risk factors has beenconducted in northern Pakistan. This case control study was conducted in order to investigatethe risk factors of the urinary bladder cancer in that area. Method: For this study 150 subjectsincluding 50 cases and 100 controls were interviewed from the 2 tertiary care hospitals ofPeshawar and the information was collected about the characteristics like gender, age, smokinghabits, family history of cancer, etc. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explainthe risk factors of the disease. Odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were computed byusing logistic regression model. Results: The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval forchemical exposure are 4.637 and (1.022–21.053), for cigarette smoking 19.526 and (4.688–81.329), for lifestyle 0.171 and (0.031–0.943), for fluid consumption 0.025 and (0.005–0.115),for fried items 5.934 and (1.429–24.648), and for fruits are 0.173 (0.045–0.660), respectively.Conclusions: Chemical exposure, cigarette smoking, and high use of fried items increase therisk of urinary bladder cancer. Moderate lifestyle, high fluid consumption and use of fruits areprotective against the disease.Keywords: Bladder cancer, Controls, Odds ratio, Questionnaire, Risk factors


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