EFFECT OF SILYMARIN ON SERUM LEVELS OF ALT AND GGT IN ETHANOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
AbstractBackground: Alcoholic liver disease is a worldwide health problem. At least 80% of heavydrinkers have been reported to develop steatosis, 10–35% alcoholic hepatitis, and approximately10% liver cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of silymarin on thelevels of serum ALT and GGT in ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. This study was anexperimental Randomised Control Trial (RCT), and was conducted at the experimental researchlaboratory of University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January 2007 to December 2007.Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of 6–8 weeks age, weighing 150–200 gm each were dividedinto 3 groups of 6 rats each. Group A served as control, Group B was given ethanol at a dose of 0.6ml (0.5 gm)/100 gm/day and group C was given ethanol and silymarin at a dose of 0.5 gm/100gm/day, and 20 mg/100 gm/day respectively for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, eachanimal was euthenised with chloroform. Blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncturefor liver function tests (ALT and GGT). After taking blood sample, each euthenised animal wassacrificed and then its liver was removed for gross and histological examination. Results: Themean values of serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) in groups A, B and C were 28.16±7.13,82.33±10.89 and 49.66±6.12 U/L respectively, whereas, the mean values of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in groups A, B and C were 27.33±3.05, 79.33±4.37 and 45.66±1.85 U/Lrespectively. ANOVA showed significant (p<0.05) difference in mean value of these serumenzymes among groups. Post Hoc test, using the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD)showed that there was significant (p<0.05) increase in mean value of ALT and GGT in group B ascompared to group A and C. This test also showed that there was significant (p<0.05) decrease inmean value of these enzymes in-group C as compared to group B. Conclusion: Silymarin tends tonormalise liver function test in alcoholic liver disease.Keywords: Ethanol, Silymarin, Alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)
Kumar, Cotran, Robbins (edt). In Robbins Basic Pathology 7th ed.
Philadephlia: Saunders; 2003.
Lieber CS. Alcohol and the liver: 1994 update. Gastroenterology
Walsh K and Alexander G. Alcoholic liver disease. Postgrad
Med J 2000;76:280–6.
Thurman RG. Alcoholic liver injury involves activation of
Kupffer cells by endotoxin. Am J Physiol 1998;275:605–11.
Worman HJ. Alcoholic liver disease [on line] 2002. Cited on 24
August 2006. URL: http www.cumc.columbia.edu/dept/gi/
Tsukamoto H, Lu SC. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of
alcoholic liver injury. FASEB J 2001; 15:1335–49.
Alcoholic liver disease [on line]. 2005 [Cited on 24 August
. Available from URL: http://www.merck.com/mmpe/
Kaplowitz N, Tsukamoto H. Oxidative stress and liver disease.
Prog liver Dis1996;14:131–59.
Younes M and Strubelt O. Alcohol induced hepatotoxicity: A
role for oxygen free radicals. Free Radic Res 1987;3:19–26.
Cederbaum AI. Role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in
alcohol toxicity. Free Radic Biol Med 1989;7:537–9.
Nordmann R, Ribiere C, Rouach H. Implication of free radical
mechanisms in ethanol-induced cellular injury. Free Rad Biol
Luper S. A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease:
Part 1. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:410–21.
Pepping J. Milk thistle: Silybum marianum.Am J Health Syst
Flora K, Hahn M, Rosen H, Benner K. Milk thistle (Silybum
marianum) for the therapy of liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol
Sonnenbichler J, Zetl I. Biochemical effects of the flavonolignane
silibinin on RNA, protein and DNAsynthesis in rat livers. In:
Cody V, Middleton E, Harborne JB, editors. Plant flavonoids in
biology and medicine: biochemical, pharmacological and
structure-activity relationship. New York: Alan R Liss Inc., 1986:
Valenzuela A, Lagos C, Schmidt K, Videla LA. Silymarin
protection against hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by acute
ethanol intoxication in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol
Enomoto N, Takei Y, Hirose M, Konno A, Shibuya T,
Matsuyama S, et al. Prevention of ethanol-induced liver injury in
rats by an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma, pioglitazone. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;306:846–54.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.