SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B IN OUTDOOR FEMALE PATIENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP AT AYUB TEACHING HOSPITAL ABBOTTABAD
AbstractBackground: Hepatitis B is inflammation of the liver caused by a Hepatitis B virus, having aparenteral mode of entry and infecting millions of people around the world. Objective: Thepresent study was planned to assess the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B in women of reproductiveage in Hazara in order to promote disease prevention in the perinatal period by vaccination againstHepatitis B. Subjects and Methods: Women 15–45 years old belonging to Hazara Division wereincluded in this descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted over a period of one year at theDepartment of Microbiology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad in collaboration with theDepartment of Pathology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 1st March 2006 to 28thFebruary 2007. Non-probability convenience sampling was done to select 500 females from thosevisiting Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad as outdoor patients or accompanying person.History, examination, and serum alanine aminotransferase estimation were followed by the initialscreening for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) using immunochromatographic device.Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay was used to confirm the presence of HBsAg. Results:HBsAg was detected in 3% of the women. History of multiple injections was present in 100%,blood transfusion in 22%, dental procedure in 46% and surgical procedure in 43% of the subjects.Only 1% women had been vaccinated. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B is notdifferent from the figures reported by the studies previously conducted on general population inPakistan. However it is different from those reported for the special groups.Keywords. Hepatitis B, Viral Hepatitis, Chronic liver disease, HBsAg, immunochromatographicdevice, ELISA
Lin HJ, Lai CL, Lau JYN. Evidence of intrafamilial transmission
of hepatitis B virus from sequence analysis of mutant hepatitis B
viral DNAs in Chinese families. Lancet 1990;336:208–12.
Wong VC, Ip HM, Reesink HW, Lelie PN, Reerink-Brongers
EE, Yeung CY. Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in
newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg
and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and
hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double blind randomised placebocontrolled study. Lancet 1984;1:921–6.
Hollinger FB, Liang TJ. Hepatitis B virus. In: Knipe DM,
Howley PM, eds. Fields virology. 4th ed. Vol. 2. Philadelphia:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001:2971–3036.
Norder H, Courouce AM, Magnius LO. Complete genomes,
phylogenetic relatedness and structural proteins of six strains of
the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes.
McMahon BJ. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis B.
Semin Liver Dis 2005;25(Suppl 1):3–8.
Ali N, Khattak J, Anwar M, Tariq W, Nadeem M, Irfan M, et
al. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C
antibodies in young healthy adults. Pakistan J Pathol
Majed A, Qayyum A. Presence of hepatitis-B virus in healthy
donors at blood unit Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore.
Pakistan J Med Res 2000;39:111–2.
Rana G, Akmal N, Akhtar N. Prevalence of hepatitis B in
pregnant females Ann King Edward Med Coll 2006;12:313.
Mirza IA, Mirza SH, Irfan S, Siddiqi R, Tariq W, Janjua AN.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C in young adults seeking
recruitment in armed forces. Pak Armed Forces Med J
Bond WW, Favero MS, Petersen, NJ, Gravelle CR, Ebert JW,
Maynard JE. Survival of hepatitis B virus after drying and
storage for one week. Lancet 1981;1:550–1.
Nakano NI, Eto A, Chikaura Y, Oishi T. Multienzyme control
serum (Sera Clear-HE) containing human enzymes from
established cell lines and other sources. 2: Evaluation as
candidate working enzyme reference material for Alanine and
aspartate aminotransferases. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem
Sato L, Khiyama S, Linnuma Y, Nada T, Shimokata K,
Nakashima N. Evaluation of immunochromatographic assay
systems for rapid detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and
antibody. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34(6):1420–2.
Yousfani S, Mumtaz F, Memon A, Memon MA, Sikandar R.
Antenatal screening for Hepatitis B and C virus carrier state at a
University Hospital. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci
Khan HI. A study of seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C in
Mothers and children in Lahore. Pakistan Ped J
Kazmi K, Ghafoor A, Qureshi AW. Mother-infant transmission
of Hepatitis B in Pakistan. Pakistan J Med Res 2003;42(4):1526.
Mehnaz A, Hashmi H, Syed S, Kulsoom. Hepatitis B markers in
mothers and its transmission in newborn. J Coll Physician Surg
Khokhar N, Gill ML, Malik GJ. General Seroprevalence of
Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B virus infections in population. J Coll
Physician Surg Pak 2004;14(9):534–6.
Zakaria M, Ali S, Tariq GR, Nadeem M. Prevalence of
Antihepatitis C antibodies and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in
healthy male Naval recruits. Pak Armed Forces Med J
Qasmi SA, Aqeel S, Ahmed M, Alam SI, Ahmed A. Detection of
Hepatitis B viruses in Normal Individuals of Karachi. J Coll
Physician Surg Pak 2000;10(2):467–9.
Marri SM, Ahmed J. Prevalence of Hepatitis B antigenemia in
general population of Quetta, Baluchistan. Biomedica
Khan MA, Ali AS, Hassan ZU, Mir F, Haque SU.
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B in children Pakistan Ped J
Farooq MA, Iqbal MA, Tariq W, Hussain AB, Ghani I.
Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in a healthy cohort. Pakistan J
Abbas Z, Shazi L, Jafri W. Prevalence of Hepatitis B in
individuals screened during a countrywide vaccination compaign.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006;16:495.
Talpur AH, Ansari HG, Awan MS, Ghumro AA. Prevalence of
Hepatitis B and C in surgical patients. Pak J Surg
Chaudhary I.A, Khan SA, Samiullah. Should we do Hepatitis B
and C screening on each patient before surgery: analysis of 142
cases. Pak J Med Sci 2005;21(3):278–80.
Masood Z, Jawaid M, Khan RA, Rehman S. Screening for
Hepatitis B and C: A routine preoperative investigation? Pak J
Med Sci 2005;21(4):455–9.
Ashraf, MN, Hussain T. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in
diabetics. Pakistan J Pathol 2004;15(3):113–5.
Khitab U, Khan SA, Shah SA, Haq N. Hepatitis in dental
practice–A study conducted on 1498 patients. Pak Oral Dental J
Shrestha SK, Bhattarai MD. Study of Hepatitis B among
different categories of health care workers. J Coll Physicians
Surg Pak 2006;16(2):108–11.
Mohammad J, Hussain M, Khan MA. Frequency of Hepatitis B
and Hepatitis C infection in thalassaemic children. Pakistan Ped J
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.