• Muhammad Idris Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
  • Jamila Farid Ayub Medical College
  • Nasreen Gul Ayub Medical College


Background: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, plays regulatory role in more than 300–800 genes. Daily requirement of vitamin D depends upon the age and exposure to sun. Approximately one billion people in different parts of the world including Pakistan are either Vitamin D deficient or have insufficient levels of vitamin D. The present study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, aimed at knowing the status of vitamin D3 in outdoor patients from Hazara division, having aches and pains. It was conducted over a period of four years on 453 outdoor patients of either sex and all the age groups presenting to Ayub Teaching Hospital. Sample was selected by non-random convenience sampling technique Methods: Common causes of aches and pains other than Vitamin D deficiency were excluded by history, examination and basic laboratory tests. Vitamin D3 estimation was done by immunoassay. Results: Mean age of the participants was 40±19.62 years; the mean level of vitamin D was 21.88±14.12 ng/ml. As much as 398 (87%) participants aged 20–60 years were either vitamin D3 deficient 330 (69.9%), or had vitamin D insufficiency 68 (17.7%). Gender wise, 295 (65%) were females and 158 (35%) males, with female to male ratio of 1.29:1. Normal vitamin D3 level was detected in 55 (12.5%) participants with male predominance. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in patients presenting with aches and pains, in all age groups, effecting females more than males.Keywords: Vitamin D; Cholecalciferol; Ergocalciferol; Sunlight; Rickets; Osteomalacia

Author Biographies

Muhammad Idris, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad


Jamila Farid, Ayub Medical College


Nasreen Gul, Ayub Medical College



Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007;357(3):266–81.

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):18–28. [Erratum, Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1253].

Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Škrabáková Z, Gross MG, Valtueña J, Henauw SD, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103(4):1033–44.

Ritu G, Gupta A. Vitamin D Deficiency in India: Prevalence, Causalities and Interventions. Nutrients 2014;6(2):729–75.

van Schoor NM, Lips P. Worldwide vitamin D status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;25(4):671–80.

Khan H, Ansari MA, Waheed U, Farooq N. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in General Population of Islamabad, Pakistan. Ann Pak Inst Med Sci 2013;9(1):45–7.

Lemeshow S, Hosmer Jr DW, Klar J, Lwanga SK, Editors. Adequacy of sample size in health studies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1990; p.25.

Mahmood K, Akhtar ST, Talib A, Haider I. Vitamin-d status in a population of healthy adults in Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci 2009; 25(4):545–50.

Mufti MA, Malhi UR, Zubair A, Badar I, Mufti M. Vitamin D levels in adults in northern Pakistan. Rawal Med J 2012;37(1):2–5.

Baig A, Anjum P, Khani MK,Islam N, Rehman A. Pattern of serum vitamin D in OPD patients. Pak J Surg 2007;23(2):145–9.

Alam J, Jan A, Khan B. Frequency of vitamin D insufficiency in general adult population in Peshawar. Pak J Physiol 2016;12(1):13–4.

Iqbal R, Khan AH. Possible causes of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in Pakistani population residing in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2010;60(1):1–2.

Baig MA, Humail M, Iqbal M, ul Islam N. Serum vitamin D in common non-metabolic disorders: results of patients’ survey at public hospitals of Karachi. J Dow Univ Health Sci 2009;3(3):114–20.

Haque IU, Salam TU, Hussain M, Iqbal W, Zafar S, Javed M. Assessment of the vitamin D levels in the patients presenting with different medical conditions and its correlation with symptomatology. Ann King Edward Med Univ 2009;15(2):60–3.

Qamar S, Akbani S, Shamim S, Khan G. Vitamin D levels in children with growing pains. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2011;21(5):284–7.

Bhimani MM. Vitamin D: does it play a role in psychiatry? J Pak Med Assoc 2012;62(2):181–2.

Usman R, Khan F, Wadud S, Zafar S. Vitamin D status in patients with cardiometabolic syndrome J Med Sci 2015;23(3):172–5.

Kwon SI, Son JS, Kim YO, Chae CH, Kim JH, Kim CW, et al. Association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms among female workers in the manufacturing industry. Ann Occup Environ Med 2015;27:28.

Sharma S, Aggarwal N. Vitamin D and Pelvic Floor Disorders. J Midlife Health 2017;8(3):101–2.



Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>