PATTERN OF PATHOGENS AND THEIR SENSITIVITY ISOLATED FROM SUPERFICIAL SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
AbstractBackground: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Rapidlyemerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic reviewof isolation patterns and sensitivity in surgical practice. Surgical site infections (SSI) are defined as aninfections that occurs at the incision site within thirty days after surgery. Objectives of the study were todetermine the pattern of pathogens involved and their antibiotic sensitivity isolated from superficialsurgical site infections in a teaching hospital. Methods: This observational study was conducted for 1year from January 2008 to December 2008 in all 4 surgical units of Liaquat University HospitalHyderabad which caters to patients from low socioeconomic status. Pus culture and sensitivity reportswere collected prospectively from hospitalised patients who developed postoperative wound infection.The patients who developed fecal/biliary/urinary fistula or operated for malignancies, and with negativecultures were excluded from the study. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10. Results: During thestudy period 112 pus culture and sensitivity reports were analyzed. E. coli 68 (60.7%) was the mostcommon organism isolated followed by Klebsiella 23 (20.5%). The least frequent organism was staph.Epidermidis 1 (0.9%). All isolates were sensitive to penicillin derivatives and carbapenem. Quinolones,Aminoglycosides and Monobactum were also showing some promise in our study. However,Cephalosporins were ineffective against most of the important isolates in our study. Conclusion: E.coli and klebsiella were the most important isolates form SSI in our study, and penicillin derivativesand carbapenem were showing 100% antibiotic sensitivity to all of the isolates.Keywords: Superficial Surgical site infections, E. coli, Klebsiella, Penicillin derivatives, carbapenem
Mangrum AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR.
Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect
Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:250–80.
Lee J. Wound infection surveillance for quality improvement In:
Fry D (ed) Surgical infection. New York: Little brown; 1995.
Lee J. Wound infection surveillance. Surg Clin North Am
Garabaldi RA, Cushing D, Lerer T. Risk factors for postoperative
infection. Am J Med 1991;91(3B):158S–163S.
Horan TC, Ganes RP, Martone WJ, , Jarvis WR, Emori TG.
CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a
modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:606–8.
Lee J, Olson M. Wound infection surveillance for 85,260
consecutive operations. J Surg Outcomes 1999;2:27–42.
Olson M, Lee J. Continuous, ten year wound infection
surveillance: results, advantages, and unanswered questions.
Arch Surg 1990;125:794–803.
Weber DJ, Raasch R, Rutala WA, Nosocomial infection in the
ICU, the growing importance of antibiotics resistance pathogens.
Chest 1999;115(3 suppl):34S–41S.
Olson M, O’Connor Schwartz ML. Surgical wound infections. A
-year prospective study of 20,193 wounds at the Minneapolis
VA Medical Center. Am Surg 1984;199:253–9.
Surveillance of surgical site infections in English hospitals 1997–
Nosocomial Infection National Surveillance Service
(NINSS). PHLS publications 2001.
Crowcroft NS, Ronveaux O, Monnet DL, Mertens R. Methicillin
resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial use in Belgian
Hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:31–6.
Qureshi AH, Rafi S, Qureshi SM, Maqsood. The current
susceptibility pattern of MRSA to conventional antistaphylococcus antimicrobials at Rawalpindi. Pak J Med Sci
Majeed MT, Izhar M. Glycopeptides sensitivity pattern in
staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care
hospital. Ann KE Med Coll 2005;11:263–7.
Livermore DM, Mushtaq S, James D, Potz N, Walker RA,
Chariett A, et al. In vitro activity of piperacillin/Tazobactam and
other broad spectrum antibiotics against bacteria from
hospitalized patients in the British Isles. Int J Antimicrob Agents
Karlowsky JA, Draghi DC, Jones ME, Thornsberry C, Friedland
IR, Sahm DF. Surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility
among clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeuroginosa and
acinetobacter baumannii from the hospitalized patients in the
United States. 1998 to 2001. Anti Microb Agents Chemother
Zelenitsky SA, Harding GK, Sun S, Ubhi K, Ariano RE.
Treatment and outcome of pseudomonas aeuroginosa
bacteraemia: an antibiotic pharmacodynamic analysis. J
Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:668–74.
Rizvi MF, Hassan Y, Memon AR, Abdullah M, Rizvi MF,
Saleem F, et al. Pattern of Nosocomial infection in two intensive
care Hospital in Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
Morgan M. Surgery and cephalosporins: A marriage made in
heaven or time for Divorce? The Internet J Surg 2006;8(1). URL:
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.