• Syed Asad Ali
  • S. M. Tahir
  • Abdul Sattar Memon
  • Noshad A. Shaikh


Background: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Rapidlyemerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic reviewof isolation patterns and sensitivity in surgical practice. Surgical site infections (SSI) are defined as aninfections that occurs at the incision site within thirty days after surgery. Objectives of the study were todetermine the pattern of pathogens involved and their antibiotic sensitivity isolated from superficialsurgical site infections in a teaching hospital. Methods: This observational study was conducted for 1year from January 2008 to December 2008 in all 4 surgical units of Liaquat University HospitalHyderabad which caters to patients from low socioeconomic status. Pus culture and sensitivity reportswere collected prospectively from hospitalised patients who developed postoperative wound infection.The patients who developed fecal/biliary/urinary fistula or operated for malignancies, and with negativecultures were excluded from the study. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10. Results: During thestudy period 112 pus culture and sensitivity reports were analyzed. E. coli 68 (60.7%) was the mostcommon organism isolated followed by Klebsiella 23 (20.5%). The least frequent organism was staph.Epidermidis 1 (0.9%). All isolates were sensitive to penicillin derivatives and carbapenem. Quinolones,Aminoglycosides and Monobactum were also showing some promise in our study. However,Cephalosporins were ineffective against most of the important isolates in our study. Conclusion: E.coli and klebsiella were the most important isolates form SSI in our study, and penicillin derivativesand carbapenem were showing 100% antibiotic sensitivity to all of the isolates.Keywords: Superficial Surgical site infections, E. coli, Klebsiella, Penicillin derivatives, carbapenem


Mangrum AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR.

Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Infect

Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:250–80.

Lee J. Wound infection surveillance for quality improvement In:

Fry D (ed) Surgical infection. New York: Little brown; 1995.


Lee J. Wound infection surveillance. Surg Clin North Am


Garabaldi RA, Cushing D, Lerer T. Risk factors for postoperative

infection. Am J Med 1991;91(3B):158S–163S.

Horan TC, Ganes RP, Martone WJ, , Jarvis WR, Emori TG.

CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a

modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:606–8.

Lee J, Olson M. Wound infection surveillance for 85,260

consecutive operations. J Surg Outcomes 1999;2:27–42.

Olson M, Lee J. Continuous, ten year wound infection

surveillance: results, advantages, and unanswered questions.

Arch Surg 1990;125:794–803.

Weber DJ, Raasch R, Rutala WA, Nosocomial infection in the

ICU, the growing importance of antibiotics resistance pathogens.

Chest 1999;115(3 suppl):34S–41S.

Olson M, O’Connor Schwartz ML. Surgical wound infections. A

-year prospective study of 20,193 wounds at the Minneapolis

VA Medical Center. Am Surg 1984;199:253–9.

Surveillance of surgical site infections in English hospitals 1997–

Nosocomial Infection National Surveillance Service

(NINSS). PHLS publications 2001.

Crowcroft NS, Ronveaux O, Monnet DL, Mertens R. Methicillin

resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial use in Belgian

Hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20:31–6.

Qureshi AH, Rafi S, Qureshi SM, Maqsood. The current

susceptibility pattern of MRSA to conventional antistaphylococcus antimicrobials at Rawalpindi. Pak J Med Sci


Majeed MT, Izhar M. Glycopeptides sensitivity pattern in

staphylococci isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care

hospital. Ann KE Med Coll 2005;11:263–7.

Livermore DM, Mushtaq S, James D, Potz N, Walker RA,

Chariett A, et al. In vitro activity of piperacillin/Tazobactam and

other broad spectrum antibiotics against bacteria from

hospitalized patients in the British Isles. Int J Antimicrob Agents


Karlowsky JA, Draghi DC, Jones ME, Thornsberry C, Friedland

IR, Sahm DF. Surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility

among clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeuroginosa and

acinetobacter baumannii from the hospitalized patients in the

United States. 1998 to 2001. Anti Microb Agents Chemother


Zelenitsky SA, Harding GK, Sun S, Ubhi K, Ariano RE.

Treatment and outcome of pseudomonas aeuroginosa

bacteraemia: an antibiotic pharmacodynamic analysis. J

Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:668–74.

Rizvi MF, Hassan Y, Memon AR, Abdullah M, Rizvi MF,

Saleem F, et al. Pattern of Nosocomial infection in two intensive

care Hospital in Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak


Morgan M. Surgery and cephalosporins: A marriage made in

heaven or time for Divorce? The Internet J Surg 2006;8(1). URL:





Most read articles by the same author(s)