PREVALENCE OF HIV IN PREGNANT WOMEN IDENTIFIED WITH A RISK FACTOR AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
AbstractBackground: HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelongmedical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences.Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent,diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as apublic health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence ofHIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is aDescriptive study. Method: All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessedvia a pre-designed ‘Risk assessment questionnaire’. Women identified with a risk factor were offeredHIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test wereconfirmed with ELISA. Results: During the study period (March 2007–May 2008), out of 5263antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was donein 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) onscreening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of bothwomen were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history ofblood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnantwomen diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women,found pregnant were referred from ‘HIV Treatment Centre’, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences(PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8)women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. Conclusion: A simple ‘RiskAssessment Questionnaire’ can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexualtransmission still remains the commonest cause of HIV transmission.Keywords: HIV/AIDS, PPTCT, Antiretroviral drugs, Pregnancy, Antenatal, STD, Risk Factor
Hyder AA, Khan OA, Shah SA, Memon MA, Khanani MR, Ali
S. Sub-national response in HIV/AIDS: a case study in AIDS
prevention and control from Sindh province, Pakistan. Public
Khanani RM, Hafeez A, Rab SM, Rasheed S: Human
immunodeficiency virus-associated disorders in Pakistan. AIDS
Res Hum Retroviruses 1988;4:149–54.
GoP & UNAIDS 2000. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. A situation and
response analysis. Ministry of Health & UNAIDS. Islamabad.
HIV Second generation Surveillance in Pakistan. National Report
Round III, 2008. National AIDS Control Program Ministry of
Health, Pakistan 2008.
UNGASS Pakistan Report. Progress report on the Declaration of
Commitment on HIV/AIDS for United Nations General
Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS. Prepared by National
AIDS Control Program. Ministry of Health. Government of
Pakistan. Islamabad. 2007.
Rai MA, Warraich HJ, Ali SH, Nerurkar VR. HIV/AIDS in
Pakistan: the battle begins. Retrovirology 2007;4:22.
Shah SA, Khan OA, Kristensen S, Vermund SH. HIV-infected
workers deported from the Gulf States: impact on Southern
Pakistan. Int J STD AIDS 1999;10:812–4.
UNAIDS, UNICEF, WHO: Epidemiological fact sheet,2004.
available at: http://unaids.org/Publications/Fact-Sheet01/Pakistan
EN.pdf. Update: Pakistan.Accesed: 21 Sept 2006.
Rajabali A, Khan S, Warraich HJ, Khanani MR, Ali SH. HIV
and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:511–5.
Creek TL, Sherman GG, Nkengasong J, Lu L, Finkbeiner T,
Fowler MG et al. Infant human immunodeficiency virus
diagnosis in resource-limited settings: issue, technologies and
country experiences. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197:64–71.
Cooper ER, Charurat M, Mofenson L, Hanson IC, Pitt J, Diaz C,
et al. Combination anteretroviral strategies for the treatment of
pregnant HIV-1 infected women and prevention of perinatal
HIV-1 transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
Sansom SL, Harris NS, Sadek R, Lampe MA, Ruffo NM, Fowler
MG. Toward elimination of perinatal immunodeficiency virus
transmission in the United States: effectiveness of funded
prevention programs, 1999–2001. Am J Obstet Gynecol
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised
recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescent and
pregnant women in health care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal
Wkly Rep 2006;55:1–16.
Hussain S, Kadir M, Fatmi Z. Resource allocation within the
National AIDS control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative
assessment of decision maker’s openions BMC Health Serv Res
Khushk IA, Kadir MM. HIV/AIDS threat in Pakistan: changing
concerns and realities. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006;16:631–2.
Khan O, Hyder AA. HIV/AIDS among males who have sex with
males (MSMs) in Pakistan. Sex Health Exch 1998;3:12–3,15
Baqi S, Nabi N, Hasan SN, Khan AJ, Pasha O, Kayani N, et al.
HIV antibody seroprevalence and associated risk factors in sex
workers, drug users, and prisoners in Sindh, Pakistan. J Acquir
Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retroviral 1998;18:73–9
Iqbal J, Rehan N. Sero-prevalence of HIV: six years experience
at Shaikh Zayad Hospital, Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc