DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL MINERAL BASED HAEMOSTATIC AGENT CONSISTING OF A COMBINATION OF BENTONITE AND ZEOLITE MINERALS
AbstractBackground: Haemorrhage remains the greatest threat to life on the battlefield, accounting forhalf of all deaths. Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies forstopping sever haemorrhages and has introduced an effective zeolite based haemostatic agent. Inthis paper the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as twominerals; bentonite and zeolite are presented. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 maleWistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anaesthesia,animals’ tails were cut off at a thickness of 5 mm by using a pair of surgical scissors. Nointervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 5th group received topical nonradioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or amixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents,the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time (BT) andclotting time (CT) were also measured using a chronometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) wasused for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The volume of bloodloss, bleeding and clotting time in control animals were 4.39±1.92 ml, 112.10±39.60 sec and94.9±54.26 sec respectively. In the 2nd group, in which the animals were treated with a nonradioactive lantern mantle, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting time were 2.34±0.35ml, 54.50±14.77 sec and 22.9±6.54 sec, respectively. In the 3rd group, in which the animals weretreated with a radioactive lantern mantle, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting timewere 1.50±0.58 ml, 37.10±7.81 sec and 33.5±15.76 sec respectively. In the 4th group, in which theanimals were treated with bentonite mineral, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting timewere 1.81±0.62 ml, 55.70±16.73 sec and 45.9±32.17 sec, respectively. In the 5th group, in whichthe animals were treated with a mixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals, the volume of blood loss,bleeding and clotting time were 1.31±0.60 ml, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the 1st study to investigate the alterations of bleeding andclotting time following the use of lantern mantle powder as well as bentonite or the mixture ofbentonite-zeolite minerals. The results obtained in this study clearly show the significantalterations in the volume of blood loss as well as the bleeding or clotting time following thetopical use of the mixture of bentonite-zeolite minerals. Controlling the generation of heat was agreat achievement in development of the novel haemostatic agent produced in this study.Keywords: Bleeding Time, Clotting Time, Radioactive Lantern Mantle, Minerals, Bentonite, Zeolite
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