EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUICIDE IN FAISALABAD
AbstractBackground: Suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in the world, accounting for more than 400,000 deaths annually. The incidence and pattern of suicide vary from country to country. Cultural, religious and social values play some role in this regard. Very few studies about the epidemiology of suicide have been conducted in Pakistan. We conducted this study on the patterns of suicide in autopsies conducted at Faisalabad from 1998 to 2001, to know the incidence of suicide, which subgroups of the population were most vulnerable to such deaths and the methods being used. Materials and Methods: The study includes 95 cases of suicidal deaths of both sexes belonging to different age groups autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad. Cases were selected on the basis of information from the scene of crime, police inquest, autopsy findings and interview with the acquaintances of the victim. Findings were tabulated and analyzed. Results: The study revealed that suicide rate was 1.12/100,000, with male preponderance. The peak incidence was in 20–29 years in males and 10–19 years in females. Hanging was the most common method. A seasonal surge in spring was noted. Conclusion: Suicide in Faisalabad is much lower compared to western countries. Suicides occur at a younger age in Faisalabad compared to western countries.KEY WORDS: Suicide, Firearms, Seasonal variation.
. Awan NR. Principles and Practice of Forensic Medicine. Lahore: Sublime Arts; 2002:25.
Bluglass R, Bowden P Eds. Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1990:213-606.
Curran WJ, McGarry AL, Petty CS. Modern Legal Medicine, Psychiatry and Forensic Science. Philadelphia: F.A.Davis Company; 1980: 172-850.
Nadesan K. Pattern of suicide: a review of autopsies conducted at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Malays J Pathol 1999 Dec; 21 (2): 95-9.
Nwosu SO, Odesanmi WO. Pattern of suicides in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2001 Jul-Sep; 20(3): 259-62.
La Harpe R. Suicide in the Geneva canton (1971-1990). An analysis of the forensic medicine autopsy sample. Arch Kriminol 1995 Mar-Apr; 195 (3-4): 65-74.
Di Maio VJM. Gunshot Wounds Practical aspects of Firearms, ballistics and forensic techniques. New York: CRC Press; 1993: 293-94.
Peng KL, Choo AS. Suicide and parasuicide in Singapore (1986). Med Sci Law 1990 Jul; 30 (3): 225-33.
Khan MM, Reza H. The pattern of suicide in Pakistan. Crisis 2000; 21 (1): 31-5.
Khalid N. Pattern of suicide: Causes and methods employed. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak Dec 2001; 11(12): 759-61.
McAlpine DE, Panser LA, Swanson DW, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ 3rd. Suicide in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1951 through 1985. Mayo Clin Proc 1990 Jan; 65 (1): 13-22.
Li S, Hauser LA, Gao B. Suicide in Travis County, Texas, from 1994 through 1998. Tex Med 2001 May; 97(5): 64-8.
Scott KW. Suicide in Wolverhampton (1976-1990). Med Sci Law 1994 Apr; 34(2): 99-105.
He ZX, Lester D. What is the Chinese suicide rate? Percept Mot Skills 1999 Dec; 89 (3 Pt 1): 898.
Carballeira Roca C, Vazquez Fernandez E, Castro Lopez P, Seoane Diaz B, Brana Rey N. Descriptive study of suicide in Galicia, 1987. Gac Sanit 1089 Nov-Dec; 3(15): 551-9.
Daradkeh TK. Suicide in Jordan 1980-1985. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1989 Mar; 79 (3): 241-4.
Daly C, Kelleher MJ, Crowley MJ, Daly M, Keohane B, Daly F, McLeavey BC. Suicide levels in Cork City 1987/1991. Ir Med J 1996 May-Jun; 89 (3): 99-101.
Hutchinson G, Daisley H, Simmons V, Gordon AN. Suicide by poisoning. West Indian Med J 1991 Jun; 40 (2): 69-73.
De Leo D, Conforti D, Carrolo G. A century of suicide in Italy: a comparison between the old and the young. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1997 fall; 27 (3): 239-49.
Yamamoto Y, Yamada M, Fukunaga T, Tatsuno Y.Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi 1990 Apr; 44(2): 190-8.
Miron Canelo JA, Saenz Gonzalez MC, Blanco Montagut L, Fernandez Martin C. Descriptive epidemiology of suicide in Spain (1906-1990). Actas Luso Esp Neurol Psiquiatr Cienc Afines 1997 Sep-Oct; 25(5): 327-31.
Snowdon J. Suicide rates and methods in different age groups: Australian data and perceptions. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1997 Feb; 12(2): 253-8.
Sultana K. Proportion of suicidal deaths among autopsy. Ann Abbasi Shaheed Hosp Karachi Mar 2002; 7: 317-8.
Kelleher MJ, Keohane B, Corcoran P, Keeley HS. Elderly suicides in Ireland. Ir Med J 1997 Mar; 90(2): 72-74.
Pitkala K, Isometsa ET, Henriksson MM, Lonnqvist JK. Elderly suicides in Finland. Int Psychogeriatr 2000 Jun; 12(2): 209-20.
Flisher AJ, Parry CD. Suicide in South Africa. An analysis of nationally registered mortality data for 1984-86. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994 Nov; 90(5): 348-53.
Bille-Brahe U, Jessen G. Suicide in Denmark, 1922-1991: the choice of method. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994 Aug; 90(2): 91-6.
Joe S, Kaplan MS. Firearm-related suicide among young african-american males. Psychiatr Serv 2002 Mar; 53(3): 332-4.
Adamek ME, Kaplan MS. The growing use of firearms by suicidal older women, 1979-1992: a research note. Suicide Life Threat Behav 1996 spring; 26(1): 71-8.
Romero MP, Wintemute GJ. The epidemiology of firearm suicide in the United States. J Urban Health 2002 Mar; 79(1): 39-48.
Hlady WG, Middaugh JP.Suicides in Alaska: firearms and alcohol. Am J Public Health 1988 Feb; 78(2): 179-80.