• Muhammad Aslam Khan
  • Syed Fayyaz Hussain


Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute significantly to morbidity and morality insurgical patients. Pulmonary complications occur more frequently than cardiac complications. Thecomplication rates for upper abdominal and thoracic surgery are the highest. A betterunderstanding of the risk factors associated with postoperative pulmonary complications isessential to develop strategies for reducing these complications. In any individual patient thebenefit from a surgical procedure should be weighed against the risks it imposes. When possible,stabilization of respiratory status is advisable before surgery. This article reviews patient andprocedure related risk factors, clinical and laboratory evaluation for preoperative risk assessmentand risk reduction strategies to minimize the complication rates.


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