• Syed Ashfaq Ali Shah
  • Hassan Sajid Kazmi
  • Abdul Aziz Awan
  • Jaffar Khan


Background: Episcleritis , though common in adults, is a rare disease in children. Episcleritis isassociated with systemic diseases in a third of cases in adults. Here we describe systemic diseasesassociated with recurrent episcleritis in children less than five years of age. Method: ThisRetrospective Observational case series study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmologyof Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March 1995 till February, 2006. Six childrendiagnosed clinically with recurrent episcleritis were included in this study. Completeophthalmologic as well as systemic evaluation was done in each case. Results: This study wasconducted on 6 children with a diagnosis of recurrent episcleritis. There were four boys and twogirls, with an age range of 35-52 months. Right eye was involved in three cases, left eye in twocases while one case had a bilateral disease. Recurrence occurred in the same eye in all cases, withone bilateral involvement. Four children (66%) had a history of upper respiratory tract infection inthe recent past. No other systemic abnormality was detected in any case. Two cases had a historyof contact with a pet animal. Conclusion: Recurrent episcleritis in young children is a benigncondition. Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common systemic association. Pet animalsmay be a contributory factor.Keywords: Recurrent Episcleritis, Children, Age, Systemic Disease.


Snell RS, Lemp MA: Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Chicago,

Blackwell Scientific Publications 1989.

Fine BS, Yanoff M: Ocular Histology: A Text and Atlas, ed

, New York, Harper and Row, 1979.

Watson PG: Diseases of the Sclera and episclera. In Tasman

W, Jaegter EA (eds) Duane”s Clinical Ophthalmology ;

Vol4. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1992, pages 1038-48.

Russel WR. Avery H Weiss and David DS: Episcleritis in

childhood. Ophthalmology 1999 106: 2377-79.

Watson PG. Hazleman BL: The sclera and systemic

disorders. Philadelphia. WB Saunders. 1976, Chapter 4, pp


Watson PG, Hayreh SS: Seleritis and Episcleritis. Br J

Ophtahlmol 1976; 60: 163-191.

Foster S. Sainz de la Maza M: The Sclera. New York,

Springer- Verlag, 1993, 100-101.

Sainz de la Maza M, Jabbur NS, Foster CS: Severity of

Scleritis and Episcleritis. Ophthalmology 1994; 101: 389-96

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>