• Rania Hadayat Medical Officer,Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  • Attique -ur-Rehman Jehangiri Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  • Rahid Gul Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  • Adil Naseer Khan Department of Gastroenterology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  • Khalid Said Department of Gastroenterology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  • Asadullah Gandapur Department of Gastroenterology, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad


Background: Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical emergency. A common risk factor of upper GI bleeding is cirrhosis of liver, which can lead to variceal haemorrhage. 30–40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have non-variceal upper GI bleeding and it is frequently caused by peptic ulcers, portal gastropathy, Mallory-Weiss tear, and gastro-duodenal erosions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with liver cirrhosis. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Gastroenterology & Hepatology Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from February 2012 to June 2013. 252 patients diagnosed with cirrhosis, presenting with upper GI bleed, age ≥50 years of either gender, and were included in the study. Non-probability consecutive sampling was used. Endoscopy was performed on each patient and the findings documented. Results: The mean age was 57.84±6.29 years. There were 158 (62.7%) males and 94 (37.3%) females. The most common endoscopic finding was oesophageal varices (92.9%, n=234) followed by portal hypertensive gastropathy (38.9%, n=98) with almost equal distribution among males and females. Gastric varices were found in 33.3% of patients (n=84). Among other non-variceal lesions, peptic ulcer disease was seen in 26 patients (10.3%) while gastric erosions were found in 8 patients (3.2%). Conclusion: In patients with acute upper GI bleeding and liver cirrhosis, the most common endoscopic finding is oesophageal varices, with a substantially higher value in our part of the country, apart from other non-variceal causes.Keywords: Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, liver cirrhosis, oesophageal and gastric varices, endoscopy


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