SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS AMONG PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH NON – SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS AT AYUB TEACHING HOSPITAL ABBOTTABAD
AbstractBackground: brucellosis is one of the prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide. It not only adds to the global burden of disease but also has huge economic impact. Clinical features of human brucellosis are usually vague. This study was carried out to find out the frequency of brucellosis among patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms in hospital setting and to find out risk factors. Methods: Study was carried out in outpatient Medicine Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad for the period of 3 months. Patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms of fever, body aches, myalgias, arthralgia, headache, backache, malaise and insomnia of either gender between the ages of 18–60 years were included in the study through consecutive sampling technique. Blood Samples from patients were sent for screening Brucella antibodies by serum agglutination method. Antibodies were checked for both Brucella abortus and mellitensis. Results: total 70 patients were recruited in the study. Out of these 49 (70%) were found positive for Brucella. These positive Brucella patients were mostly 42 (85.71%) female and majority 35 (71.4%) were in the age group of 21–40 years. In both male and female patients’ majority were positive for both species of Brucella. Nonspecific symptoms included Aches, Pains and Myalgia in all the patients with additional symptoms of Malaise in 13 (18.6%), headache 10 (14.3%) and insomnia and fever in 9 (12.9%) each. Majority of the enrolled patients 53 (75.71) gave negative history of using boiled/pasteurized milk in their daily consumption while 17 (24.3%) patients suggested use of boiled/pasteurized milk. Conclusion: A high frequency of human brucellosis was found among patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms, therefore it is recommended that such patients should be screened for brucellosis.Keywords: Brucellosis; Brucella abortus; Brucella mellitensis; Nonspecific symptoms; Zoonosis
Lopes LB, Nicolino R, Haddad JPA. Brucellosis-Risk Factors and Prevalence: A Review. Open Vet Sci J 2010;4(1):72–84.
Gul S, Khan A. Epidemiology and epizootology of brucellosis: A Review. Pak Vet J 2007;27(3):145–51.
Alrheam AI, Al Shehri ZA, Elneam AI, Cruz CP. Human Brucellosis Incidence Trends in Central Saudi Arabia (DawadmiGovernate). Int J Adv Res 2015;3(5):1580–6.
Ageely H, BanSi I, Gaffar A, Eltigani M,Yassin AO, Said B, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province , Saudi Arabia. Trop J Pharm Res 2016;15(1):189–94.
Lytras T, Danis K, Dounias G. Incidence Ptterns and Occupational Risk Factors of Human Brucellosis in Greece, 2004-2015. Int J Occup Environ Med 2016;7(4):221–26.
Leong KN, Chow TS, Wong PS, Hamzah SH, Ahmad N, Ch’ng CC. Outbreak of Human Brucellosis from Consumption of Raw Goats Milk in Penang, Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015;93(3)539–41.
Dean AS, Crump L, Greter H, Hattensdorf J, Schelling E, Zinsstag J. Clinical Manifestations of Human Brucellosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012;6(12):e1929.
Shahid M, Basit A, Khan MA. Prevalence of Brucellosis among the Hospital Patients of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa. J Infect Mol Biol 2014;2(2):19–21.
Wojno JM, Moodley C, Pienaar J, Beylis N, Jacobsz L, Nicol MP, et al. Human Brucellosis in South Africa: Public health and diagnostic pitfalls. S Afr Med J 2016;106(9):835–5.
Mohammad A, Humaira Z, Kiran T. Comparative studies of human brucellosis (Malta fever) in two provinces (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab) in patients suffering from febrile illnesses and PUO (Pyrexia of unknown origin). Isra Med J 2012;4:143–47.
Rehman AA, Berkvens D, Saegerman C, Fretin D, Muhammad N, Hossain A, et al. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in patients with prolonged fever in Bangladesh. J Infect Dev Ctries 2016;10(9):939–46.
Njeru J, Melzer F, Wareth G, El-Adawy H, Henning K, Pletz MW, et al. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis 2016;22(12):2160–64.
Aloufi AD, Memish ZA, Assiri AM, McNabb SJN. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012. J Epidemiol Glob Health 2016;6(1):11–8.
Tumwine G, Matovu E, Kabasa JD, Owiny DO, Majalija S. Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in agro-pastoral communities of Kiboga District, Central Uganda. BMC Public Health 2015;15:900–8.
Mangalgi SS, Sajjan AG, Mohite ST, Kakade SV. Serological, clinical, and Epidemiological Profile of Human Brucellosis in Rural India. Indian J Community Med 2015;40(3):163–7.
Maiyo G, Obey JK. Distribution and Prevalence of Human Brucellosis among Patients reporting at Chemundu Dispensary, Nandi County, Kenya . Baraton Interdiscip Res J 2016;6:73–82.
Ramos TR, Pinheiro Junior JW, Moura Sobrinho PA, Santana VL, Guerra NR, Demelo LE, et al. Epidemiological aspects of an infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaina, Tocantins. Braz J Infect Dis 2008;12(2):133–8.
Nikokar I, Hosseinpour M, Asmar M, Pirmohbatei S, Hakeimei F, Razavei MT. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among high risk individuals in Guilan, Iran. J Res Med Sci 2011;16(10):1366–71.
Torkaman Asadi F, Hashemi SH, Alikhani MY, Moghimgeigi A, Naseri Z. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of brucellosis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella isolated in Hamedan, Iran. Jpn J Infect Dis 2017;70(3):235–38.
Ismayilova R, Nasirova E, Hanou C, Rivard RG, Baitista CT. Patterns of brucellosis infection Symptoms in Azerbaijan: A Latent Class Cluster Analysis. J Trop Med 2014;2014:593873.
Njeru J, Wareth G, Melzer F, Hening K, Pletz MW, Heller R, et al. Systematic review of brucellosis in Kenya: disease frequency in humans and animals and risk factors for human infection. BMC Public Health 2016,16(1):853.
Rock KT, Mugizi DR, Stahl K, Magnusson U, Boqvist S. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. Antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 2016;48(5):985–94.