• Mian Amjad Sohail


AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) was first reported in June 1981by Centre of Disease Control, United States. The epidemic of AIDS which originatedin United States has been exported so effectively that the rest of the world is only a bitbehind.1 In United States alone more than half a million people are already infectedwith Human T-cell Iymphotropic virus Type III/Lymphadenopathy associated virus(HTLV-III/LAV) now called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Today no countryof the world can claim to be free from its deadly clutches.The routes of transmission of AIDS were established well before the causativevirus was isolated. It was first described in homosexuals in June 1981.2 It wasrecognized in intra-venous drug abusers and Haitains3 the following year and by 1983in recipients of blood and blood products,4 infants born to mothers at risk,5heterosexual partners of patients with AIDS6 and in Africans.7 These populationgroups have been included in so-called “risk groups”.


Sounding Board. The AIDS epidemic: Multi-disciplinary trouble N. Engl. J. Med. 1986;

: 779-782.

Pneumocystis pneumonia — Los Angeles M M W R 1981; 30: 250-2.

Opportunistic infections and Kaposi’s sarcoma among Haitians in the United States

MMWR 1982; 31: 353-61.

Possible transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) California

MMWR 1982; 31: 652-4.

Unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants — New York, New

Jersey, California MMWR 1982; 31: 665-8.

Immuno-deficiency among female sexual partners of males with acquired immune

deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) — New York MMWR 1983; 31: 697-8.

Clumeck, N. Acquired Immune deficiency syndrome in black Africans. Lancet. 1983; 1:

Jaffe, H.W. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States. The first 1,000

cases. J. Infect. Dis 1983; 48: 339-45.

Friedland, G.H. Transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency virus. N. Engl. J. Med

; 317: 1125-1133.

AIDS Weekly Surveillance Report: United States Program. Atlanta: Public Health

Services, CDC, February 2, 1987.

Allain J.P. Prevalence of HTLV III/LAV antibodies in patients with haemophilia and

their sexual partners in France. N Engl J Med 1986; 315 : 517.

Lui, K.J. A model-based approach for estimating the mean incubation period of

transfusion-associated AIDS. Proc Natl Acad Sic U.S.A. 1986; 83: 3051-5.

Ward, J.W. Risk of human immunodeficiency infection from blood donors who later

developed the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 61-


Transfusion associated HTLV-III/LAV infection from a seronegative doner —

Colorado. MMWR 1986; 35: 389-91.

Marlink, R.G. Low sensitivity of ELISA testing in early HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med

; 315: 1501-5.

Napoli, V.M. How much blood is in a needlestick? J Infect Dis 1987; 155 : 828.

Henderson, D.K. Risk of nosocomial infection with HYLV-III/LAV in a large cohort of

intensively exposed health care workers. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 644-7.

Ginzburg, H.M. Intravenous drug users and the AIDS. Public Health Rep 1984; 99:


Antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in female prostitutes. MMWR 1987; 36:


PHS plan for prevention and control of AIDS and the AIDS virus. Public Health Rep

; 101: 341-8.

Quinn, T.C. AIDS in Africa: an epidemiologic paradigm. Science 1986; 234: 955-63.

Conant, M. Condoms prevent transmission of AIDS associated retrovirus. JAMA 1986;

: 1706.

Lapointe N. Transplacental (transmission of HTLV-III virus. N Engl J Med 1985; 312:


Thiry L. Islolation of AIDS virus from cell-free breast milk of three healthy virus

carriers. Lancet 1985; 2: 891-2.

Hoff, R. Seropreslence of Human Immunodeficiency virus among childberaring woman.

N Engl J Med 1988; 318: 525-30.

Marion, R.W. HTLV-III embryopathy: a new dysmorphic Syndrome associated with

intrauterine HTLV-III infection. Am J Dis Child 1986; 140: 638-40.

AIDS in western Palm Beach County, Florida. MMWR 1986; 35: 609-12.

Saltzman BR. Lack of house-hold transmission of HTLV-III/LAV infection. Presented

at the Second International Conference on AIDS, Paris, June 23-25, 1986.

Zagury, D. HTLV-III in cells cultured from semen of two patients with AIDS. Science

; 226: 449-51.

Ho, D. Infrequency of islolation of HTLV-III virus from saliva in AIDS. N. Engl. J. Med

; 313: 1606.

Wolsy, C.B. Isolation of HTLV-III from genital secretions of women with antibodies to

the virus. Lancet 1986; 1: 527-9.

Fujikawa, L.S. Isolation of HTLV-III from tears of a patient with AIDS. Lancet 1985;

: 694-9.

Levy, J.A. Infection by the retrovirus associated with AIDS. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103:


Michaelis, B.A. Levy, J.A. Recovery of HIV from serum. JAMA 1987; 257: 1327.

Ho, D.D. Isolation of HTLV-III from cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissues of patients

with neurologic syndromes related to AIDS. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1493-7.

Klein, R.S. Prevalence antibodies to HTLA-III among dental professionals. Presented

at the 26th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, New

Orleans, Sept. 28-Oct. 1, 1986.