PERNICIOUS SYNDROME OF FALCIPARUM MALARIA AND LEUKAEMOID REACTION

Authors

  • Abdul Salam Khan
  • Abdur Rahim Khan
  • Saifur Rehman

Abstract

A female child aged 11 years, was referred to our Clinical Laboratory by private localmedical specialist. The patient had 10 days history of fever of sudden onset. She had been giveninjection Amoxycillin and Injection Chloroquine by a general practioner.On examination the child was very sick and pale. The pulse was 140 beats/min, regular,temperature 100°F in axilla, systolic murmur was audible in a wide area over the praecordium. Theliver palbable 3 fingers below the right subcostal margin. X-ray chest showed mitralization andshifting of right border of the heart (fluid overload). Lung fields were congested.Hematological findings were Hb 7.0 gm/dl ESR, 95mm in 1st hour, TLC, 55,500/m3 andDLC, Neutrophils 83%, Metamyelocytes 4%, Myelocytes 02%, Band forms 04% and Lymphocytes2%. The Neutrophils showed toxic granulations. The reticulocyte, count was not done as the patientexpired. Normoblasts were 5%. Both basophilic and polychromatic forms were seen. The blood filmwas positive for malaria. The slide was teaming with gametocytes of plasmodium falciparum. Insome RBC’s ring forms of the parasites were seen. There were about 10-12 gametocytes/HPF. TheRBC’s were enlarged in size. There was no poikilvaytosis. Some target cells were also present.Urine analysis showed a dark coloured urine. Test showed Bilirubinuria and urobilinogenwas markedly increased. Microscopically there were 20-25 RBC/HPF and 6-7 pus cells/HPF.The widal test was negative. Blood chemistry results were, serum Bilirubin, 4.2 mg/dl (mainly directconjugated BILIRUBIN), ALT 70U/1, ALP 31.5 KA Units and Urea 150 mg/dl. The patient couldnot be screened for G-6PD as she expired on the second day.

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