SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION AMONG WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE
AbstractABSTRACTSera from 735 Women of Child-bearing age (15-45 years) were tested for the presence of IgGantibodies to toxoplasma gondii by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique, Intotal 263 sera (35.78%) were positive for Toxoplasma antibodies. There was gradual increase inprevalence with advancing age. Highly negative and statistically significant correlation was foundbetween toxoplasma infection and economic status (r = -0.947; p<0.02). Identical result wasrevealed between educational status and toxo infection (P<0.05). There was no statisticallysignificant difference between married and un married groups as far as prevalence of Toxoplasmaantibodies was concerned. prevalence of toxoplasma infection was much higher in women who hada cat as pet at home as compared to those who did not have a pet cat P<0.05. This epidemiologicalmodel indicates that Faecal-oral spread by oocysts is the main cause of dissemination of infectionin Pakistan.
McCabe, R.H., Remington, J.S. Toxoplasmosis. In: Wermen, K.S., Mahmoud, A.A.F., eds.
Geographical and Tropical Medicine. McGrew-Hill Book Col, New York. 1984; 281-292.
Frekel, J.K. Toxoplasmosis. In Strickland, G.T., ed. Hunter's Tropical Medicine. 6th edition. W.B.
Saunders Company Philadelphia. 1984; 593-605.
Frenkel, A.IK. Ruiz, A., Chinchilla, M. Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa
Rica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1975; 24: 439-443.
Wallace, G.D. Intermediate and transport hosts in the natural history of Toxoplasma gondii. Am. J. I
Top. Med. Hyg 1973; 22: 456-464.
Saleha, A.A. Observations on some epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. Int. J.
Zoom. 1984; 11:75-83.
Ahmed, M., Hafiz, A. Surveillance of Toxoplasmosis in different groups. J.P.M.A. 1989; 39: 183-
Benenson, M.W., Takafuji, K.T., Lemon, S.M., Greenup, R.L., Sulzer, A.J. Oocyst-transmitted
Toxoplasmas associated with ingestion of contaminated water. N. Engl. J. Med. 1982; 307: 66-669.
Wallace, G.D. The prevalence of Toxoplasmosis of Pacific islands and the influence of the ethnic
group. Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1976; 25: 48-53.
Pechere, J.G., Acar, J., Armengand, M. cl al. Infections: Recognition, Understanding, Treatment. Lea
and Febiger, Philadelphia. 1984; 350-355.
Voller, A., Bidwell, I). IF, Bartlett, A. Enzyme immunoassays in diagnostic medicine. Bui. WHO.,
Feldman, H.A. Epidemiology of Toxoplasma Infections Epidemiologic Reviews. 1982; 4: 204 213.
Ruoses, C.F., Bourne, G.L. Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonwealth.
; 79: 1115-1118.
Fikry, M.F., Rifaat, M.A. Sadek, M.S.M., Azab, M.H. The prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies in
human females in the reproductive period Cairo. J. Egypt Pub Health. Assoc. 1980; I, V: 23-35.
Basalmah, A.H. Seebour, E.K. 'Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Saudi Med. J. 1981; 2: 125-130.
Veins, P. Auger, P, Villeneuve, R., Stefanescu-soarc, I. Serological survey for congential
toxoplasmosis among 4q136 pregnancy women. Trans, r. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg. 1977; 71: 136-139.
Iddrissi, N.g., Lahlou, D., Sefiani, R., Benmira, A. Toxoplasmosis and rubella among Moroccan
Women. Results of serological enquiry'. Path. Biol. 1984; 32; 761 -765.
Al-Nakib, W., Ibrahim, M.H.A., Hathout, IIH. et al. Seroepidemiology of viral and toxoplasma
infections during pregnancy among Arab women of child-bearing age in Kuwait. Int. J. Epidemiol.
; 12: 220-0-13
Desmonts, G., Couvreur, J. Congenital toxoplasmosis — a prospective study of 378 pregnancies.
Engl. J. Med. 1974; 290: 1110-1116.
Uppal, I B., Mak, J.W. Incedence of Toxoplasmosis in Obstetrics. Pakistan .1. Med Res. 1984; 23:
Yaseen, VI. Osmani, R. Serological study of toxoplasmosis prevalence in human, domestic and small
wild animals. P.M.R.C. Annual Report 1983-84. 1984; 4-5.
Zaidi, M IL, Shah, S.H. And ahmed Z. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant
women of Hazara. Pak. J. Med. Res. 1992; 31: 85-87.
Stray — Pedersoen, B., Lorentzen, Styr, A.M. The prevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among
pregnant women in Norway. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Dis. 1979; 11: 159-165.
Wallace, G.D. Serologic and epidemiologic observations on toxoplasmosis on the three pacific atolls.
Am. J. Epidemiol. 1969; 90: 103 111.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad is an OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL which means that all content is FREELY available without charge to all users whether registered with the journal or not. The work published by J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad is licensed and distributed under the creative commons License CC BY ND Attribution-NoDerivs. Material printed in this journal is OPEN to access, and are FREE for use in academic and research work with proper citation. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad accepts only original material for publication with the understanding that except for abstracts, no part of the data has been published or will be submitted for publication elsewhere before appearing in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. The Editorial Board of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad makes every effort to ensure the accuracy and authenticity of material printed in J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. However, conclusions and statements expressed are views of the authors and do not reflect the opinion/policy of J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad or the Editorial Board.
USERS are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.
AUTHORS retain the rights of free downloading/unlimited e-print of full text and sharing/disseminating the article without any restriction, by any means including twitter, scholarly collaboration networks such as ResearchGate, Academia.eu, and social media sites such as Twitter, LinkedIn, Google Scholar and any other professional or academic networking site.