• Iqbal Begum


Of 2811 deliveries between 1st January 1992 to 31st December 1992 in Gynae A Unit, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, forceps deliveries were 277 (incidence -9.85%). The incidence of failed forceps was 2.16%. The most common group of indications were abnormalities of 2nd stage (53.09%). There were 31 still births and 12 neonatal deaths. The total perinatal deaths were 43. The commonest cause of still birth was birth asphyxia. Most of neonatal deaths were due to prematurity. The perinatal deaths were in cases with preexisting maternal, obstetrical and fetal complications; 60 of our patients had one or other type of complication. The maternal mortality rate was 1.44c /c, forceps not being the cause of these deaths. We have lost 3 patients due to postpartum haemorrhage and one due to eclampsia. The study also showed that maternal morbidity rate was high. Two of our patients had major complications, i.e. uterine rupture and vesicovaginal fistula. The conclusion is that forceps are not free of risk. They are valuable instruments in expert hands. The risks associated with forceps must be balanced against the potentially more serious sequelae associated with caesarean sections.


Akhtar S: "Vacuum extraction verses forceps

delivery: maternal and fetal morbidity". Short

report. Journal of Medical Sciences, Khyber

Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, December,

; 2:421-27.

Berhus MD, Romamerty O, Cannor PS, Brown K,

Hayashi RH. Cohort study of silastic obstetric

vacuum cup deliveries. Safety of the instrument.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1985 Oct; 66(4): 503-

Bottom SF, Hirsch VJ, Sohol RJ. Medical Management

of arrest disorders of labour. A current

overview Am. J. Obstet and Gynaecol 1987 April;

(4): 935-39.

Chow SL, Johnson CM, Anderson TD, Hughes JH.

Rotational delivery with Kielland forceps. Medical

J. Aust., 1987 Jun 15; 146(12): 616-9.

Danforth DN. Dystocia due to abnormal feto- pelvic

relations. Obstetric and Gynaecology 4th Edition

Ch. 34, Harper and Row Publisher Philadelphia,

; 695-716.

Giwa-Osagie OF, Ogunyemi D & Ogedegbe BK.

Indication and outcome of forceps deliveries in

Lagos: a study of 553 cases. Asia Oceania J Obstet

Gynaecol, 1987 March; 13(1 ):59-63.

Dierker LJ Jr, Rosen MG, Thompson K, Deb- anne

S & Linn P. The mid forceps: maternal and neonatal

outcome. Am J Obstet Gynaecol, 1985 May 15;

(2): 176-83.

Kadar N. Do mid forceps deliveries really impair

subsequent intelligence quotient scores (letter). Am

J Obstet Gynaecol, 1985 Sept; 15-153(2): 2333-35.

Svigos JM, Cave DG, Vignewaran R, Resell A &

Christiansen J. Silastic cup vacuum extractor or

forceps: a comparative study. Asia Oceania J Obstet

Gynaecol, 1990 Dec;16(4):323-37.