AN EP1DEMOLOGICAL STUDY OF SMOKING AT ABBOTTABAD
AbstractBackground: Smoking is a type of environmental pollution and is injurious to health. We conducted anepidemiological study of different forms of smoking like cigarette. Hookah (Hubble- Bubble) and cigar in Abbottabad.Methods: 600 randomly selected subjects residing in different localities of Abbottabad were included. A specificallydesigned questionnaire was filled. Results: Out of the study population 200 (33%) were found to be smoking.Conclusions: A significant proportion of Abbottabad population smokes. This city is supposed to be a relatively lesspolluted hill station where a lot of people come for vacations.
Department of Health and Human Services. Epidemiology in
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Report of the Task
Force on Research in Epidemiology and Prevention of
Cardiovascular Disease Rock vile MD Public Health Services.
National Institute of Health. 1994.19-72
Doll R. Grav R. Hafner B. Peto R. Mortality in relation to
smoking 22 years’ observations on female British doctors
BJM 1980.280 967-74
Selizer CC Framinham study data and "establish wisdom"
about cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease J Clin
Baron JA. Vecchia Cl. Leveri F. The anti-estrogenic effect of
cigarette smoke in women Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990:162
Mechnovicz JJ. Hershcopf RJ. Naganuma H. Bradlow HI.
Fishman J Increased 2-hydroxyIation of estradiol as a possible
mechanism for the anti-estrogenic effect of cigarette smoking.
N Engl J Med. 1986:315 .1305-9
Mechnovicz JJ. Hershcopf RJ, Haley NJ. Bradlow IIL.
Fishman J Cigarette smoking alters hepatic estrogen
metabolism in men implication for atherosclerosis Metabolism
Lightwood J M. (Hum/ S A. Short term economic and health
benefits of smoking cessations: myocardial infarction and
stroke Circulation 1997.96.1089-96
Gradstein F. Stampfer M The epidemiology of coronary heart
disease and estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women
Prog Cardiovase Disease. 1995.38 199-210
Stampfer MJ. Colditz. GA. WC. Manson JF, Rosner B,
Spcizer FE. et al Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and
cardiovascular disease Ten years follow s-up from the nurses’
health study (with comments |. N Engl J Med 1991.325 756-
Pierce JP. Gilpin EA, Emery SL, et al. Has the California
Tobacco Control Program reduced smoking? JAMA 1998,208
Siegel M Mowery PD. Pechacek TP. et al. Trends in about
cigarette smoking in California compared with the rest of the
United States, 1978-1994 Am J. Public Health 2000:90:371-9
Russell MAH. Wilson C. Taylor C. Baker CD Effect of
general practitioner’s advice against smoking. BMJ 1979,2
Cummings SR. Stein MJ. Hansen B. Richard RJ, Gerbert B.
Coates TJ Smoking counseling and preventive medicine, a
survey of internists in private practice and a health
maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med. 1989.149:345-
Thorndike A.N, Rigotti N.A, Stafford R.S, Singer D.E,
Boston, Mass. National patterns in the treatment of smokers
by physicians. JAMA I998; 25:604 - 608.
Anda RF, Remington PL. Sienko DO, Davis RM Are
physicians advising smokers to quit9 The patients perspective
Frank E. Wmkleby MA. Altman DG. Rock hill B. Forman SP.
Predictors of physicians smoking cessation advice. JAMA.
Orleans CT, George LK, Houpt JL. Brodie KH. Health
promotion in primary care: a survey of US family
practitioners. Prev Med. 1985:14 636-647